Metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with Cushing's syndrome of different aetiologies during active disease and 1 year after remission.
ABSTRACT Cushing's syndrome is associated with several comorbidities responsible for the increased cardiovascular risk, not only during the active phase but also after disease remission.
In 29 patients with Cushing's syndrome (14 Cushing's diseases and 15 adrenal adenomas), waist circumference, fasting and 2-h glucose after oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), lipid profile and blood pressure were evaluated during the active disease and 1 year after remission and compared with those in 29 sex-, age- and BMI-matched controls.
During the active disease, waist circumference, 2-h glucose after OGTT, total and LDL cholesterol were higher in patients with Cushing's syndrome than in controls (P < 0·001) but similar in Cushing's disease and adrenal adenomas. The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia and hypertension was higher (P < 0·001) in patients with Cushing's syndrome (27%, 24%, 59% and 72%) than in controls (10%, 0%, 21% and 10%), with no significant difference between Cushing's disease and adrenal adenomas. One year following hormonal remission, waist circumference persisted higher than in controls (P < 0·05) in both Cushing's disease and adrenal adenomas. Metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities were still present in both groups, although with a lower prevalence, as well as with a more marked decrease in adrenal adenomas (P < 0·05 vs active disease for IGT, dyslipidaemia and hypertension).
These results show that chronic hypercortisolism, independently of its aetiology, contributes to metabolic impairment and increased cardiovascular risk, while these abnormalities mostly persist in patients with previous Cushing's disease after hormonal remission. Pituitary hormonal deficiencies, hormonal replacement treatments and/or incomplete cure from Cushing's disease may account for these findings.
- SourceAvailable from: Annamaria Colao[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Patients with Cushing's disease (CD) mainly die because of cardiovascular accidents. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether patients with CD still have increased cardiovascular risk and suffer from premature atherosclerosis once cured. Fifteen patients cured from CD for a long term period (5 yr), 30 sex-and age-matched controls, and 30 body mass index (BMI)-matched controls were included in this study. BMI; waist to hip ratio (WHR); systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures; serum total, low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; serum triglycerides, fibrinogen, and lipoprotein(a) levels; prothrombin time; activated partial thromboplastine time; and basal and glucose load-stimulated insulin and glucose levels were measured in patients and controls. By echo-Doppler ultrasonography, the intima media thickness (IMT), systolic and diastolic media-media distances, blood systolic (SPV) and diastolic (DPV) peak velocity, systolic (SLD) and diastolic (DLD) lumen diameter, and distensibility coefficient (DC) were measured at both common carotid arteries where the presence, size, and location of atherosclerotic plaques were also evaluated. Compared with a sex- and age-matched control population, CD patients had BMI (P < 0.001), WHR (P < 0.001), SBP (P < 0.005), DBP (P < 0.05), fasting glucose (P < 0.001) and insulin (P < 0.05), glucose load-stimulated glucose and insulin levels (P < 0.05), total cholesterol (P < 0.05), LDL cholesterol (P < 0.01), fibrinogen (P < 0.01), and lipoprotein(a) (P < 0.05) levels higher and HDL cholesterol levels (P < 0.05) lower than controls. At ultrasonography, in the patients, IMT (P < 0.05), SPV (P < 0.05) and DPV (P < 0.001) were significantly increased whereas SLD (P < 0.001), DLD (P < 0.001), and DC (P < 0.05) were significantly decreased compared to controls. In addition, CD patients had higher WHR (P < 0.05), DBP (P < 0.05), glucose load-stimulated glucose and insulin levels (P < 0.05), and fibrinogen levels (P < 0.01) and lower HDL cholesterol (P < 0.05) levels than BMI-matched controls. At ultrasonography, increased common carotid arteries IMT (P < 0.05) and DPV (P < 0.05) and decreased DLD (P < 0.05) and DC (P < 0.05) were measured in patients compared to those in BMI-matched controls. Atherosclerotic plaques were found in 26.7% of patients, in none of the sex- and age-matched controls, and in 3.3% of the BMI-matched controls. In CD patients, a significant correlation was found between both WHR and fasting serum insulin levels and DBP (r = 0.52 and r = 0.55; P < 0.05), triglycerides levels (r = 0.56 and r = 0.77; P < 0.05), and IMT (r = 0.64 and r = 0.56; P < 0.05). Right (r = -0.70; P < 0.005) and left (r = -0.65; P < 0.01) DC were inversely correlated to the duration of CD in the patient group. At the multiple regression analysis, WHR was the best predictor of fasting insulin levels (beta = 0.77; P < 0.05), and vice versa, fasting insulin level was the best predictor of WHR (beta = 1.20; P < 0.05). In conclusion, patients cured from CD for a long term period have a high prevalence of atherosclerosis and maintain increased several cardiovascular risk factors of the active disease, probably due to a residual abdominal obesity and/or insulin resistance syndrome.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 09/1999; 84(8):2664-72. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance has been proposed as a mediator of the association between risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the population. The clinical syndrome of glucocorticoid excess (Cushing's syndrome) is associated with glucose intolerance, obesity and hypertension. By opposing the actions of insulin, glucocorticoids could contribute to insulin resistance and its association with other cardiovascular risk factors. In this review, we describe briefly the known mechanisms of insulin resistance and highlight the potential mechanisms for the effect of glucocorticoids. We then discuss factors which modulate the influence of glucocorticoids on insulin sensitivity; this highlights a novel therapeutic strategy to manipulate glucocorticoid action which may prove to be a useful tool in treating subjects with insulin resistance. Finally, we describe evidence from human studies that glucocorticoids make an important contribution to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance in the population.Clinical Science 06/1999; 96(5):513-23. · 4.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The main purpose was to assess the incidence and late outcome of Cushing's syndrome, particularly in Cushing's disease. Information for all patients diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome during an 11-yr period in Denmark was retrieved. The incidence was 1.2-1.7/million.yr (Cushing's disease), 0.6/million.yr (adrenal adenoma) and 0.2/million.yr (adrenal carcinoma). Other types of Cushing's syndrome were rare. In 139 patients with nonmalignant disease, 11.1% had died during follow-up (median, 8.1 yr; range, 3.1-14.0), yielding a standard mortality ratio (SMR) of 3.68 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.34-5.33]. The SMR was partly attributable to an increased mortality within the first year after diagnosis. Eight patients died before treatment could be undertaken. The prognosis in patients with malignant disease was very poor. Patients in whom more than 5 yr had elapsed since initial surgery were studied separately, including a questionnaire on their perceived quality of health. In 45 patients with Cushing's disease who had been cured through transsphenoidal neurosurgery, only 1 had died (SMR, 0.31; CI, 0.01-1.72) compared with 6 of 20 patients with persistent hypercortisolism after initial neurosurgery (SMR, 5.06; CI, 1.86-11.0). In patients with adrenal adenoma, SMR was 3.95 (CI, 0.81-11.5). The perceived quality of health was significantly impaired only in patients with Cushing's disease and appeared independent of disease control or presence of hypopituitarism. It is concluded that 1) Cushing's syndrome is rare and is associated with increased mortality, in patients with no concurrent malignancy also; 2) the excess mortality was mainly observed during the first year of disease; and 3) the impaired quality of health in long-term survivors of Cushing's disease is not fully explained.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 02/2001; 86(1):117-23. · 6.43 Impact Factor