A New Architecture for Transparent Electrodes: Relieving the Trade-Off Between Electrical Conductivity and Optical Transmittance

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 5001, USA.
Advanced Materials (Impact Factor: 17.49). 06/2011; 23(21):2469-73. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100419
Source: PubMed


A novel architecture with high-aspect-ratio nanoscale metallic periodic patterns is fabricated as transparent electrodes. The structure shows high visible light transmission and has superior electrical conductivity compared to standard indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. A proof-of-principle organic photovoltaic device is successfully fabricated with the electrode.

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Available from: Kristen Constant, Jan 14, 2014
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    • "This trade-off has currently been investigated in Refs. [8] [9]. However the primary research focus was concentrated on the uniform patterns while little attention has been paid to the random ones. "
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    ABSTRACT: The distinction of opto-electrical properties in case of aluminum , gold and silver random and ordered nano-holed layers was demonstrated. It is found that transmittance is dropped due to the shortening of plasmon polaritons propagating length within the Anderson localization effect, while sheet resistance increases in regard of decrement of metal connections volume. Eventually gold and silver possess the transmittance of more than 80% and the sheet resistance of 20 Ohm/sq regardless of holes arrangement. Al-iminum demonstrates comparable parameters only with ordered patterns.
    META'14 – The 5th International Conference on Metamaterials, Photonic Crystals and Plasmonics, SINGAPORE; 05/2014
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    • "In recent research efforts, carbon nanotube networks [10] and unpatterned thin metal films [11] have been evaluated as potential replacements for the conventional ITO electrodes. However , these TCEs still suffer from the classic tradeoff between the optical transmittance and electrical conductivity [12]. An increase in the thickness of the film results in a lower electrical sheet resistance due to the increase in the number of charge carriers , which improves the electrical performance. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we propose a circuit model for two-dimensional arrays of metallic square holes located on a homogeneous substrate, in order to propose a new scheme containing this type of metamaterials to obtain transparent electrodes with simultaneous terahertz transparency and low electrical resistance. The results of the introduced circuit model, which is a fully analytical model with explicit expressions, are in almost complete agreement with the full-wave simulations. Thanks to this analytical model, we can employ standard binomial matching transformer in order to minimize the reflected power from the structure at a desired frequency. Furthermore, taking advantage of this model, we design an optimized tri-layer structure by seeking for a high optical transmittance at the desired frequency and over a wide bandwidth. The obtained transparent electrode has a high power transmission (more than 85%) within a wide frequency range (48% of the central frequency) which is desirable in commonly used transparent electrodes. The square holes are perforated in thick metallic slabs which drastically reduce the electrical resistance of the structure.
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