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Salivary Cortisol in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: The Effect of CPAP

Endocrine Research Laboratory, Aurora St. Luke's Medical Center, 2801 W KK River Pky Suite 245, Milwaukee, WI, 53215, USA, .
Endocrine (Impact Factor: 3.53). 04/2011; 40(1):137-9. DOI: 10.1007/s12020-011-9474-1
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: This study estimates diagnostic performance of late-night salivary cortisol (LNSC) as measured by automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA), evaluates the clinical implication of two consecutive LNSC measurements, and compares its accuracy with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and serum cortisol after low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in obese and overweight patients referred for suspected Cushing's syndrome (CS). One hundred twenty three consecutive obese and overweight referred patients and 98 healthy volunteers provided two saliva samples collected at 23:00 using a Salivette (Sarstedt, Germany), assayed by ECLIA (Cobas e601) and ELISA. The patients underwent DST and were further evaluated until CS was pathologically confirmed (n = 45) or excluded. Diagnostic performance of LNSC was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The total areas under the curve (AUC) were calculated to compare the different tests. We found that a cut-off value of 9.4 nmol/l can differentiate CS among obese and overweight patients with sensitivity of 84.4 % (95% CI 71.2-92.2), specificity of 92.3 % (95% CI 84.2-96.4), and diagnostic odds ratio of 65.1 (95% CI 20.4-207.6). No difference was found between AUCs from the first, second, and the mean from the two LNSC measurements (ECLIA), LNSC (ELISA), or DST. The single LNSC (ECLIA) and DST improved the sensitivity and specificity for concordant results up to 100 and 97.4 %, respectively. In conclusion, due to its automation and its comparable diagnostic performance, ECLIA is preferable as a first-line LNSC screening test for CS. The initial use of single LNSC followed by DST provides better diagnostic performance for concordant results.
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    ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a widespread disorder characterized by recurrent, partial, or complete episodes of apnea due to upper airway tract obstruction during sleep. OSAS frequency is likely to increase in hypothyroidism because of obesity, macroglossia, dysfunctional upper respiratory tractus (URT) musculature, deposition of mucopolysaccharides in URT tissues, and decreased ventilatory control. This study examines the relationship between OSAS and thyroid disease in OSAS subjects. This study includes 150 polysomnographically diagnosed OSAS patients (50 mild, 50 moderate, 50 severe OSAS cases) treated at Endocrinology and Metabolism Department of Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital between January 2010 and May 2011 and 32 non-OSAS control subjects. All patients were given serum TSH, free T3 (fT3), free T4 (fT4), anti thyroid peroxidase (Anti-TPO), and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-TG) tests, as well as thyroid ultrasounds. We did not find any difference in prevalence of hypothyroidism, numbers of nodules and parenchyma heterogenicity determined by ultrasound, between OSAS subgroups and controls (p > 0,05). In this study, functional and ultrasonographic examination of the thyroid gland did not reveal any relationship between OSAS and thyroid disease. We believe hence that long-term follow-up studies can establish the possible significance of routine evaluation of OSAS patients for thyroid disease.
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