Article

Topoisomerase II alpha protein and responsiveness of breast cancer to adjuvant chemotherapy with CEF compared to CMF in the NCIC CTG randomized MA.5 adjuvant trial

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment (Impact Factor: 4.2). 07/2011; 128(2):401-9. DOI: 10.1007/s10549-011-1511-5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Overexpression of topoisomerase II protein (topo 2α) is postulated to be more closely associated with responsiveness to anthracycline-containing chemotherapy than human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) gene amplification or alterations in the topoisomerase II alpha gene (TOP2A). The authors used tissue microarrays from 477 of 710 premenopausal women with node-positive breast cancer randomized to CEF or CMF adjuvant chemotherapy in the NCIC Clinical Trials Group Mammary 5 (MA.5) trial. No significant interaction was found between treatment and continuous topo 2α level in either relapse-free (RFS) or overall survival (OS). In 136 patients (28.5%) whose tumors showed topo 2α overexpression by immunohistochemistry based on a cut-off of 13%, CEF was superior to CMF for RFS (adjusted HR 0.45; 95% CI 0.25-0.82; P = 0.009) and OS (adjusted HR 0.50; 95% CI 0.26-0.96; P = 0.04). When tumors lacked topo 2α overexpression, CEF was not superior for RFS (adjusted HR 0.88; 95% CI 0.64-1.22; P = 0.46) or OS (adjusted HR 0.95; 95% CI 0.66-1.38; P = 0.80). Interaction between topo 2α and treatment was borderline significant for RFS (P = 0.04) and OS (P = 0.05) and not substantially more significant than between TOP2A gene alteration (P (interaction) = 0.09 for RFS and 0.02 for OS) or HER2 overexpression (P (interaction) = 0.002 for RFS and 0.009 for OS). Topo 2α protein overexpression based on the cut-off identified in this study, TOP2A gene alterations and HER2 protein overexpression were each associated with responsiveness to anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. The topo 2α protein analysis was exploratory and will require further validation.

0 Followers
 · 
97 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Topoisomerase 2α (Topo2A) is a key enzyme in replication. It functions as a cell proliferation and cell cycle-specific marker and it is identified mainly in the interphase nuclei of proliferating cells. Many studies have shown that Topo2A protein expression is up-regulated in various cancers including esophageal cancer. However, to date, no studies have adequately addressed the prognostic value of Topo2A in patients with resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Therefore, we conducted a large-scale retrospective study investigating the expression of Topo2A and the clinicopathological characteristics or prognosis of ESCC patients. Eight hundred and twenty-nine specimens of ESCC from patients who underwent complete esophageal cancer resection were evaluated using an immunohistochemical assay. Among them, 404 (48.7 %) cases with a score >2 were determined to be positive for Topo2A expression. Topo2A overexpression was significantly associated with poorer differentiation (P = 0.007) and perineural invasion (P = 0.046). The median progression-free survival (PFS) of 319 patients with Topo2A-positive expression and 336 patients with Topo2A-negative expression was 19.5 and 26.5 months, respectively (P = 0.000). The overall survival (OS) in patients with and without Topo2A expression was 34.0 and 44.5 months, respectively (P = 0.002). In the multivariate analysis, Topo2A overexpression was identified as an independent prognostic factor for PFS (P = 0.001) and OS (P = 0.009). We determined that Topo2A overexpression was not only associated with poorer differentiation and perineural invasion, but it could also act as an independent risk factor for ESCC.
    Medical Oncology 01/2015; 32(1):396. DOI:10.1007/s12032-014-0396-7 · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inhibitors of topoisomerase II (topo II) are clinically effective in the management of hematological malignancies and solid tumors. The efficacy of anti-tumor drugs targeting topo II is often limited by resistance and studies with in vitro cell culture models have provided several insights on potential mechanisms. Multidrug transporters that are involved in the efflux and consequently reduced cytotoxicity of diverse anti-tumor agents suggest that they play an important role in resistance to clinically active drugs. However, in clinical trials, modulating the multidrug-resistant phenotype with agents that inhibit the efflux pump has not had an impact. Since reduced drug accumulation per se is insufficient to explain tumor cell resistance to topo II inhibitors several studies have focused on characterizing mechanisms that impact on DNA damage mediated by drugs that target the enzyme. Mammalian topo IIα and topo IIβ isozymes exhibit similar catalytic, but different biologic, activities. Whereas topo IIα is associated with cell division, topo IIβ is involved in differentiation. In addition to site specific mutations that can affect drug-induced topo II-mediated DNA damage, post-translation modification of topo II primarily by phosphorylation can potentially affect enzyme-mediated DNA damage and the downstream cytotoxic response of drugs targeting topo II. Signaling pathways that can affect phosphorylation and changes in intracellular calcium levels/calcium dependent signaling that can regulate site-specific phosphorylation of topoisomerase have an impact on downstream cytotoxic effects of topo II inhibitors. Overall, tumor cell resistance to inhibitors of topo II is a complex process that is orchestrated not only by cellular pharmacokinetics but more importantly by enzymatic alterations that govern the intrinsic drug sensitivity.
    Frontiers in Pharmacology 08/2013; 4:89. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2013.00089
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Historically, the selection of the most effective adjuvant regimen for breast cancer patients was based on tumor size and nodal status but this approach took into account the stage only, without considering that the biology of the tumor matters as well, as breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease at the molecular level. In the present manuscript we will attempt to address the issue of selecting the most appropriate cytotoxic agents for adjuvant programs in the clinically and biologically distinct subgroups of endocrine responsive (luminal A and luminal B), HER2 positive and triple negative breast cancer patients.
    Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology 08/2014; DOI:10.1586/17512433.2014.945429