Immunochemical changes of calbindin, calretinin and SMI32 in ischemic retinas induced by increase of intraocular pressure and by middle cerebral artery occlusion

Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.
Anatomy & cell biology 03/2011; 44(1):25-34. DOI: 10.5115/acb.2011.44.1.25
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The reaction of neuroactive substances to ischemic conditions in the rat retina evoked by different methods was immunochemically evaluated in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Ocular ischemic conditions were unilaterally produced by elevating intraocular pressure (EIOP) or by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Two EF-hand calcium binding proteins, calbindin D28K (CB) and calretinin (CR), in the normal retina showed similar immunolocalization, such as the amacrine and displaced amacrine cells, the ganglion cells, and their processes, particularly CB in horizontal cells. CB immunoreactive neurons in the ganglion cell layer in both types of ischemic retinas were more reduced in number than CR neurons compared to those in a normal retina. The CB protein level in both ischemic retinas was reduced to 60-80% of normal. The CR protein level in MCAO retinas was reduced to about 80% of normal but increased gradually to the normal value, whereas that in the EIOP showed a gradual reduction and a slight recovery. SMI32 immunoreactivity, which detects a dephosphorylated epitope of neurofilaments-M and -H, appeared in the axon bundles of ganglion cells in the innermost nerve fiber layer of normal retinas. The reactivity in the nerve fiber bundles appeared to only increase slightly in EIOP retinas, whereas a moderate increase occurred in MCAO retinas. The SMI32 protein level in MCAO retinas showed a gradual increasing tendency, whereas that in the EIOP showed a slight fluctuation. Interestingly, the MCAO retinas showed additional SMI32 immunoreactivity in the cell soma of presumed ganglion cells, whereas that of EIOP appeared in the Müller proximal radial fibers. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity appeared in the astrocytes located in the nerve fiber layer of normal retinas. Additional GFAP immunoreactivity appeared in the Müller glial fibers deep in EIOP retinas and at the proximal end in MCAO retinas. These findings suggest that the neurons in the ganglion cell layer undergo degenerative changes in response to ischemia, although EIOP retinas represented a remarkable Müller glial reaction, whereas MCAO retinas had only a small-scaled axonal transport disturbance.

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    • "Visual information is required for APA behavior [26], and common carotid manipulation during tMCAO might produce brief retinal ischemia and modify retinal function [31]. Therefore, visual function needs to be assessed under these conditions. "
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    ABSTRACT: Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be important for cognitive behavioral control necessary for complex APA learning.
    PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e57503. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0057503 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of CB in the sympathetic ganglia was investigated by immunohistochemistry. The distribution of CB immunoreactivity was studied in the superior cervical ganglion (SCG), stellate ganglion (SG) and celiac ganglion (CG) from rats and cats of different ages (newborn, 10-day-old, 20-day-old, 30-day-old, two-month-old, six-month-old). We observed that the percentage of CB-immunoreactive (IR) neurons decreased during early postnatal development in rats and cats. In all studied ganglia of both species, the percentage of CB-IR neurons was high in newborn and 10-day-old animals and significantly decreased up to 30 days of life. In rats of all ages, the largest percentage of CB-IR neurons was observed in the SG compared to the SCG and CG. In the cat sympathetic ganglia, the number of CB-IR neurons decreased more rapidly during the first two months of life, and only scattered CB-IR neurons were found in the sympathetic ganglia of two-month-old and six-month-old cats. In cats, the highest percentage of CB-IR neurons was observed in the SG, while the lowest percentage was found in the CG. The difference in size between CB+ and CB- neurons equally changed during development. Finally, the changes in the size and percentages of CB-IR neurons were complete in rats at the first month of life, and in cats at the end of the second month.
    Autonomic neuroscience: basic & clinical 04/2012; 167(1-2):27-33. DOI:10.1016/j.autneu.2011.11.005 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The retina is a light-sensitive tissue of the central nervous system that is vulnerable to ischemia. The pathological mechanism underlying retinal ischemic injury is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate structural and functional changes of different types of rat retinal neurons and visual behavior following transient global ischemia. Retinal ischemia was induced using a 4-vessel occlusion model. Compared with the normal group, the number of βIII-tubulin positive retinal ganglion cells and calretinin positive amacrine cells were reduced from 6 h to 48 h following ischemia. The number of recoverin positive cone bipolar cells transiently decreased at 6 h and 12 h after ischemia. However, the fluorescence intensity of rhodopsin positive rod cells and fluorescent peanut agglutinin positive cone cells did not change after reperfusion. An electroretinogram recording showed that the a-wave, b-wave, oscillatory potentials and the photopic negative response were completely lost during ischemia. The amplitudes of the a- and b-waves were partially recovered at 1 h after ischemia, and returned to the control level at 48 h after reperfusion. However, the amplitudes of oscillatory potentials and the photopic negative response were still reduced at 48 h following reperfusion. Visual behavior detection showed there was no significant change in the time spent in the dark chamber between the control and 48 h group, but the distance moved, mean velocity in the black and white chambers and intercompartmental crosses were reduced at 48 h after ischemia. These results indicate that transient global ischemia induces dysfunction of retinal ganglion cells and amacrine cells at molecular and ERG levels. However, transient global ischemia in a 17 minute duration does not appear to affect photoreceptors.
    PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e65555. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0065555 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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