Effects of carbohydrates on satiety: Differences between liquid and solid food

Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, and Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care 07/2011; 14(4):385-90. DOI: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e328346df36
Source: PubMed


To examine the satiety effect of carbohydrates with a focus on the comparison of liquid and solid food and their implications for energy balance and weight management.
A number of studies have examined the role of dietary fiber, whole grains, and glycemic index or glycemic load on satiety and subsequent energy intake, but results remain inconclusive. Intake of liquid carbohydrates, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages, has increased considerably across the globe in recent decades in both adolescents and adults. In general, liquid carbohydrates produce less satiety compared with solid carbohydrates. Some energy from liquids may be compensated for at subsequent meals but because the compensation is incomplete, it leads to an increase in total long-term energy intake. Recent studies also suggest some potential differential responses of satiety by characteristics of the patients (e.g., race, sex, and body weight status). These differences warrant further research.
Satiety is a complex process influenced by a number of properties in food. The physical form (solid vs. liquid) of carbohydrates is an important component that may affect the satiety process and energy intake. Accumulating evidence suggests that liquid carbohydrates generally produce less satiety than solid forms.

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    Journal of Surgical Research 04/2015; 197(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2015.04.019 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    • "2013 ) . A poten - tial mechanism in this association is that carbohy - drates in liquid form produce less satiety levels than solid carbohydrates thus increasing daily energy intake ( Pan & Hu 2011 ) . Apart from the association of SSBs with weight gain , fructose - sweetened bever - ages may increase visceral adiposity , which is linked to a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases ( Stanhope et al . "
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    Maternal and Child Nutrition 09/2014; DOI:10.1111/mcn.12144 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    • "Therefore, the association between consumption of caloric liquids and satiety may have less relevance for overall energy consumption than some may assume (Drewnowski & Bellisle 2007; Bellisle et al. 2012). Replacing sugar-sweetened foods and beverages with non-or low-calorie options is a way to reduce energy intake, but it has been argued that non-nutritive sweeteners may actually increase appetite and stimulate excessive energy intake because provision of sweetness without energy may confuse the body's regulatory mechanisms (Pan & Hu 2011). Others argue that this claim is not supported by recent evidence (Bellisle et al. 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper updates a British Nutrition Foundation (BNF) Briefing Paper on this topic, published in 2011. Healthy eating and being physically active are particularly important for children and adolescents. This is because their nutrition and lifestyle influence their wellbeing, growth and development. There remains considerable room for improvement in the diets of British schoolchildren, according to findings of the government's National Diet and Nutrition Surveys (NDNS), but some improvements have been made in the past decade. Although intakes of saturated fatty acids and non-milk extrinsic sugars have decreased in recent years, on average, they are still above recommended upper levels. Average contribution of fat to total energy intake has dropped below the recommended upper level of 35%, but fibre intakes remain low. With regard to micronutrients, many teenage girls are consuming low amounts of iron, but there is also evidence of low intakes of vitamin A, riboflavin, calcium, magnesium, potassium, selenium, iodine and zinc. New data on micronutrient status is now available for 11–18 year-olds, and reveals low levels of vitamin D, riboflavin and iron (mainly in girls). Low vitamin D intake and status is a particular problem in some ethnic minority groups, especially South Asian children. There is also some evidence of socio-economic inequalities; for example, children from families with higher incomes tend to have higher intakes of fruits and vegetables compared with children from families with lower incomes. This paper also discusses how dietary patterns can influence the micronutrient intake and status of schoolchildren, as well as the risk of overweight and obesity. Since publication of the Briefing Paper in 2011, new physical activity guidelines have been published and, for the first time, these are UK-wide guidelines. Also for the first time, UK-wide data on physical activity levels in schoolchildren are available (for 7-year-old children). Physical activity levels vary little between the UK regions, with the exception of Northern Ireland where fewer children meet the UK recommendations than in other regions. The data highlight significant differences between boys and girls (with girls generally being less active) and significant differences between ethnic groups. In particular, children from the Bangladeshi, Indian and Pakistani ethnic groups are less likely to meet the recommended levels of physical activity compared with other children. Obesity remains a major problem among British schoolchildren and there is a stark socio-economic gradient, with levels of obesity being highest in the most socially deprived children. This paper also discusses various health issues in children, including iron deficiency anaemia, oral health, bone development, food allergy and intolerance, and cognitive function in children, updating the previous paper with the latest statistics and evidence. The findings of the NDNS serve to emphasise the importance of a whole school approach to good nutrition embracing the school curriculum as well as the food and drink available in schools (as highlighted in the recently published School Food Plan). School food provision has seen many changes over recent years, with school food standards now in place in all UK regions, most recently Wales. Various evaluations of the impact of school food standards, mainly in England, have highlighted improvements in the diets of schoolchildren, not only in the school setting but in their diets overall. However, there remains room for improvement. This paper also briefly describes a selection of initiatives and organisations of relevance to child nutrition.
    Nutrition Bulletin 02/2014; 39(1). DOI:10.1111/nbu.12071
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