Effects of carbohydrates on satiety: Differences between liquid and solid food

Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, and Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care 07/2011; 14(4):385-90. DOI: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e328346df36
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To examine the satiety effect of carbohydrates with a focus on the comparison of liquid and solid food and their implications for energy balance and weight management.
A number of studies have examined the role of dietary fiber, whole grains, and glycemic index or glycemic load on satiety and subsequent energy intake, but results remain inconclusive. Intake of liquid carbohydrates, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages, has increased considerably across the globe in recent decades in both adolescents and adults. In general, liquid carbohydrates produce less satiety compared with solid carbohydrates. Some energy from liquids may be compensated for at subsequent meals but because the compensation is incomplete, it leads to an increase in total long-term energy intake. Recent studies also suggest some potential differential responses of satiety by characteristics of the patients (e.g., race, sex, and body weight status). These differences warrant further research.
Satiety is a complex process influenced by a number of properties in food. The physical form (solid vs. liquid) of carbohydrates is an important component that may affect the satiety process and energy intake. Accumulating evidence suggests that liquid carbohydrates generally produce less satiety than solid forms.

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    • "2013 ) . A poten - tial mechanism in this association is that carbohy - drates in liquid form produce less satiety levels than solid carbohydrates thus increasing daily energy intake ( Pan & Hu 2011 ) . Apart from the association of SSBs with weight gain , fructose - sweetened bever - ages may increase visceral adiposity , which is linked to a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases ( Stanhope et al . "
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    • "Therefore, the association between consumption of caloric liquids and satiety may have less relevance for overall energy consumption than some may assume (Drewnowski & Bellisle 2007; Bellisle et al. 2012). Replacing sugar-sweetened foods and beverages with non-or low-calorie options is a way to reduce energy intake, but it has been argued that non-nutritive sweeteners may actually increase appetite and stimulate excessive energy intake because provision of sweetness without energy may confuse the body's regulatory mechanisms (Pan & Hu 2011). Others argue that this claim is not supported by recent evidence (Bellisle et al. 2012). "
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