Small leucine-rich proteoglycans, decorin and fibromodulin, are reduced in postburn hypertrophic scar
ABSTRACT Small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) are extracellular matrix molecules that regulate collagen fibrillogenesis and inhibit transforming growth factor-β activity; thus, they may play a critical role in wound healing and scar formation. Hypertrophic scarring is a dermal form of fibroproliferative disorders, which occurs in over 70% of burn patients and leads to disfigurement and limitations in function. By understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to scarring after injury, new clinical therapeutic approaches can by developed to minimize abnormal scar formation in hypertrophic scarring and other fibroproliferative disorders. To study the expression and localization of SLRPs with connective tissue cells in tissue immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence staining, immunoblotting, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction were used in normal skin and hypertrophic scar (HTS). In normal skin, there was more decorin and fibromodulin accumulation in the superficial layers than in the deeper dermal layers. The levels of decorin and fibromodulin were significantly lower in HTS, whereas biglycan was increased when compared with normal skin. There was an increased expression of biglycan, fibromodulin, and lumican in the basement membrane and around basal epithelial cells. In contrast, these proteoglycans were absent or weakly expressed in HTS. The findings suggest that down-regulation of SLRPs after wound healing in deep injuries to the skin plays an important role in the development of fibrosis and HTS.
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- "The delicate balance of the deposition and degradation of ECM proteins is disrupted when either excessive production of collagen, proteoglycans and fibronectin by fibroblasts or deficient degradation and remodeling of the ECM occur (38). HTSs occur when the inflammatory response to injury is prolonged, leading to the pathological characteristics of HTSs, including increased vascularization, hypercellularity, excessive collagen deposition and a decrease in small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) (39,40). "
ABSTRACT: Scar formation is a consequence of the wound healing process that occurs when body tissues are damaged by a physical injury. Hypertrophic scars and keloids are pathological scars resulting from abnormal responses to trauma and can be itchy and painful, causing serious functional and cosmetic disability. The current review will focus on the definition of hypertrophic scars, distinguishing them from keloids and on the various methods for treating hypertrophic scarring that have been described in the literature, including treatments with clearly proven efficiency and therapies with doubtful benefits. Numerous methods have been described for the treatment of abnormal scars, but to date, the optimal treatment method has not been established. This review will explore the differences between different types of nonsurgical management of hypertrophic scars, focusing on the indications, uses, mechanisms of action, associations and efficacies of the following therapies: silicone, pressure garments, onion extract, intralesional corticoid injections and bleomycin.Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil) 08/2014; 69(8):565-573. DOI:10.6061/clinics/2014(08)11 · 1.19 Impact Factor
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- "In addition, decorin and biglycan released from cells or ECM induce pro-inflammatory signaling by binding to toll-like receptors 2 and 4 . In general, expression of SLRPs is spatiotemporally regulated during wound healing, and studies have suggested that scar-free and scar-forming wound healing outcome may in part depend on the balance between these molecules –. However, their exact role in wound healing and scar formation is unclear. "
ABSTRACT: Scar formation following skin injury can be a major psychosocial and physiological problem. However, the mechanisms of scar formation are still not completely understood. Previous studies have shown that wound healing in oral mucosa is faster, associates with a reduced inflammatory response and results to significantly reduced scar formation compared with skin wounds. In the present study, we hypothesized that oral mucosal fibroblasts from human gingiva are inherently distinct from fibroblasts from breast and abdominal skin, two areas prone to excessive scar formation, which may contribute to the preferential wound healing outcome in gingiva. To this end, we compared the phenotype of human gingival and skin fibroblasts cultured in in vivo-like three-dimensional (3D) cultures that mimic the cells' natural extracellular matrix (ECM) niche. To establish 3D cultures, five parallel fibroblast lines from human gingiva (GFBLs) and breast skin (SFBLs) were seeded in high density, and cultured for up to 21 days in serum and ascorbic acid containing medium to induce expression of wound-healing transcriptome and ECM deposition. Cell proliferation, morphology, phenotype and expression of wound healing and scar related genes were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunocytochemical methods. The expression of a set of genes was also studied in three parallel lines of human abdominal SFBLs. Findings showed that GFBLs displayed morphologically distinct organization of the 3D cultures and proliferated faster than SFBLs. GFBLs expressed elevated levels of molecules involved in regulation of inflammation and ECM remodeling (MMPs) while SFBLs showed significantly higher expression of TGF-β signaling, ECM and myofibroblast and cell contractility-related genes. Thus, GFBLs display an inherent phenotype conducive for fast resolution of inflammation and ECM remodeling, characteristic for scar-free wound healing, while SFBLs have a profibrotic, scar-prone phenotype.PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e90715. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0090715 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypertrophic scar (HTS) represents the dermal equivalent of fibroproliferative disorders. Fibroblasts from the deep dermis are implicated in the development of HTS after injuries that involve deeper areas of the skin. However, fibroblasts that reside in the superficial layer of the skin show antifibrotic properties, and injuries limited to this area heal with little or no scarring. Previously, cellular and molecular characteristics of superficial fibroblasts and deep dermal fibroblasts that may influence HTS formation were analyzed. In this study, differences in cellular behavior between superficial fibroblasts and deep dermal fibroblasts that may also affect the development of HTS or tissue fibrosis were further characterized. Immunostaining and migration, adhesion, apoptosis, and cell viability assays were performed in fibroblasts from the superficial and deep dermis. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to examine the gene expression of molecules involved in cell death after treatment of fibroblasts with decorin. When compared with superficial fibroblasts, deep dermal fibroblasts showed lower migration rates. Although all the fibroblasts tested showed no difference in adhesion to fibronectin, superficial fibroblasts demonstrated increased apoptotic and dead cells when treated with decorin. Decorin resulted in a significant increase in the expression of apoptosis markers, histone-1, caspase-1, caspase-8, and p53 in superficial fibroblasts when compared with deep dermal fibroblasts. Taken together, the findings suggest that reduced migration, lack of decorin, and resistance of deep dermal fibroblasts to decorin-induced apoptosis may result in hypercellularity in injuries involving the deep dermis, leading to deposition of excess extracellular matrix and HTS formation.Journal of burn care & research: official publication of the American Burn Association 12/2011; 33(5):668-77. DOI:10.1097/BCR.0b013e31824088e3 · 1.43 Impact Factor