Small leucine-rich proteoglycans, decorin and fibromodulin, are reduced in postburn hypertrophic scar
ABSTRACT Small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) are extracellular matrix molecules that regulate collagen fibrillogenesis and inhibit transforming growth factor-β activity; thus, they may play a critical role in wound healing and scar formation. Hypertrophic scarring is a dermal form of fibroproliferative disorders, which occurs in over 70% of burn patients and leads to disfigurement and limitations in function. By understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to scarring after injury, new clinical therapeutic approaches can by developed to minimize abnormal scar formation in hypertrophic scarring and other fibroproliferative disorders. To study the expression and localization of SLRPs with connective tissue cells in tissue immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence staining, immunoblotting, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction were used in normal skin and hypertrophic scar (HTS). In normal skin, there was more decorin and fibromodulin accumulation in the superficial layers than in the deeper dermal layers. The levels of decorin and fibromodulin were significantly lower in HTS, whereas biglycan was increased when compared with normal skin. There was an increased expression of biglycan, fibromodulin, and lumican in the basement membrane and around basal epithelial cells. In contrast, these proteoglycans were absent or weakly expressed in HTS. The findings suggest that down-regulation of SLRPs after wound healing in deep injuries to the skin plays an important role in the development of fibrosis and HTS.
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ABSTRACT: Hypertrophic scar (HTS) represents the dermal equivalent of fibroproliferative disorders. Fibroblasts from the deep dermis are implicated in the development of HTS after injuries that involve deeper areas of the skin. However, fibroblasts that reside in the superficial layer of the skin show antifibrotic properties, and injuries limited to this area heal with little or no scarring. Previously, cellular and molecular characteristics of superficial fibroblasts and deep dermal fibroblasts that may influence HTS formation were analyzed. In this study, differences in cellular behavior between superficial fibroblasts and deep dermal fibroblasts that may also affect the development of HTS or tissue fibrosis were further characterized. Immunostaining and migration, adhesion, apoptosis, and cell viability assays were performed in fibroblasts from the superficial and deep dermis. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to examine the gene expression of molecules involved in cell death after treatment of fibroblasts with decorin. When compared with superficial fibroblasts, deep dermal fibroblasts showed lower migration rates. Although all the fibroblasts tested showed no difference in adhesion to fibronectin, superficial fibroblasts demonstrated increased apoptotic and dead cells when treated with decorin. Decorin resulted in a significant increase in the expression of apoptosis markers, histone-1, caspase-1, caspase-8, and p53 in superficial fibroblasts when compared with deep dermal fibroblasts. Taken together, the findings suggest that reduced migration, lack of decorin, and resistance of deep dermal fibroblasts to decorin-induced apoptosis may result in hypercellularity in injuries involving the deep dermis, leading to deposition of excess extracellular matrix and HTS formation.Journal of burn care & research: official publication of the American Burn Association 12/2011; 33(5):668-77. DOI:10.1097/BCR.0b013e31824088e3 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fibrosis is the formation of excess and abnormal fibrous connective tissue as a result of either a reparative or reactive process. A defining feature of connective tissue is its extracellular matrix, which provides structural support and also influences cellular activity. Two common human conditions that result from fibrosis are uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) and keloid scars. Because these conditions share a number of similarities and because their growth is due primarily to excessive extracellular matrix deposition, we compared the proteoglycans of uterine fibroids and keloid scars with corresponding normal tissues. Our analysis indicates that uterine fibroids and keloid scars contain higher amounts of glycosaminoglycans relative to normal myometrium and normal adult skin respectively. Proteoglycan composition is also different in the fibrotic tissues. Compared with unaffected tissues, uterine fibroids and keloid scars contain higher relative amounts of versican and lower relative amounts of decorin. There is also evidence for a higher level of versican catabolism in the fibrotic tissues compared with unaffected tissues. These qualitative and quantitative proteoglycan differences may play a role in the expansion of these fibroses and in their excessive matrix deposition and matrix disorganization, due to effects on cell proliferation, TGF (transforming growth factor)-β signalling and/or collagen fibril formation.Biochemical Journal 01/2012; 443(2):361-8. DOI:10.1042/BJ20111996 · 4.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Decorin is a structural and functional proteoglycan (PG) residing in the complex network of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in many connective tissues. Depending on the protein core and the glycosaminoglycan chain, PGs support cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, ECM assembly and growth factor binding. For applications in tissue engineering, it is crucial to develop reliable, ECM-mimicking biomaterials. Electrospinning is a suitable method for creating three-dimensional (3D), fibrillar scaffolds. While there are numerous reports on the electrospinning of proteins including collagen, to date, there are no reports on the electrospinning of PGs. In the following study, we used electrospinning to generate decorin-containing matrices for tracheal tissue engineering applications. The electrospun scaffolds were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, contact angle measurements and dynamic mechanical analysis. Additionally, we confirmed PG functionality with immunostaining and 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue. To determine cell-matrix-interactions, tracheal cells (hPAECs) were seeded and analyzed using an FOXJ1-antibody. Moreover, interactions of the electrospun scaffolds with immune-mediated mechanisms were analyzed in detail. To conclude, we demonstrated the feasibility of electrospinning of decorin to generate functional 3D scaffolds with low immunogenicity for hPAEC expansion. Our data suggest that these hybrid materials may be suitable as a substrate for tracheal tissue engineering.Biomaterials 04/2012; 33(21):5259-66. DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.03.075 · 8.31 Impact Factor