To determine the effect of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions during cardiac surgery on cytokine gene expression (GE) in relation to multiple organ failure (MOF) development after systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS).
RBC transfusion in cardiac surgery patients is dose-dependently associated with post-operative MOF, possibly acting as a second hit after cardiopulmonary bypass.
For this observational study, 29 patients divided into four groups of cardiac surgery patients were selected from a randomised controlled trial (RCT). Group 1: no-RBC, no-MOF (N = 8); group 2: MOF, no-RBC (N = 7); group 3: RBC, no-MOF (N = 6); group 4: RBC and MOF (N = 8). Selection was based on age, gender, number of (leukocyte-depleted) RBC transfusions, type and duration of surgery. A 114 cytokine GE array was applied to blood samples withdrawn before and 24 h after surgery. Expression of selected genes was confirmed with reverse transcriptase real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Nineteen of the 39 detectable genes showed a significant change in GE after surgery. Confirmed by RT-PCR, transfused MOF patients exhibit significantly less downregulation of CD40 ligand than control patients. Patients who would develop MOF show significantly larger increases in GE of transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-superfamily members 10 and 13B (TNFsf10/13B).
When tested at 24 h after surgery, cytokine GE in peripheral blood leucocytes showed no significant differences between those transfused and those not transfused. Some alterations were seen in those developing MOF compared to those who did not, but the findings offer no role of leukocyte depleted (LD) RBC transfusion in the development of MOF.
"SIRS occurs after CPB mainly because of the contact of blood with foreign body surfaces during CPB. This leads to multi-system and multi-cell activation and produces a large number of humoral and cellular inflammatory mediators through a cascade reaction, which eventually causes tissue and organ damage or even multiple organ dysfunction syndrome [8-10]. Causes of SIRS also include surgical injury, anesthesia, changes in body temperature, organ ischemia/reperfusion injury, machine blood transfusion, hemodilution, and heparin-protamine complexes [11,12]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the effect of totally thoracoscopic with conventional, open repair of atrial septal defect.
Forty atrial septal defect cases were divided into two groups by surgical approach: totally thoracoscopic approach (group A, n = 20) and conventional open approach (group B, n = 20). In group A, surgical procedures were performed through three portal incisions in the right lateral chest wall under thoracoscopic vision without the aid of a computerized robotic surgical system. Notably, all operations were completed by one surgeon who had just begun using this technique. In group B, the atrial septal defects were repaired in conventional open fashion. Clinical outcomes and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and creatine kinase isoenzyme-myocardial band (CK-MB) for the two groups were evaluated and compared.
All operations were performed successfully without serious complications. Durations of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), CPB setup, aortic cross-clamping, and operative procedure were significantly longer in group A than in group B (P < 0.05). The recovery times for body temperature and laboratory values of leukocytes were significantly shorter for group A than for group B (P < 0.05). There were no differences in durations of postoperative assisted ventilation or intensive care unit and hospital stays, volumes of blood transfused intraoperatively or thoracic drainage, or medical costs between the two groups. Serum levels of inflammatory factors (TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, and ICAM-1) and CK-MB increased significantly in both groups after surgery. However, 6 h and 12 h after surgery, levels of these inflammatory factors and CK-MB were significantly lower in group A than in group B (P < 0.05).
Thoracoscopic cardiac surgery is technically feasible and safe, with less trauma and quicker recovery even when done by a surgeon newly introduced to the technique.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Previous observations suggest that intraoperative blood transfusion (IBT) is a risk factor for adverse postoperative outcomes. IBT alters immune function and may predispose to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS).
Patients in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database were studied over a 5-year period. Logistic regression identified predictors of SIRS. Propensity matching was used to obtain a balanced set of patients with equivalent preoperative risks for IBT.
Of 553,288 inpatients, 19,968 (3.6%) developed postoperative SIRS, and 40,378 (7.2%) received IBT. Mortality in patients with SIRS was 13-fold higher than in those without SIRS (13.5% vs 1.0%, P < .001). Multivariate analysis identified the amount of blood transfused during IBT as a significant predictor for development of SIRS (odds ratio, 2.2; P < .0001). After propensity matching, 33,507 matched patients with IBT had significantly increased risk for SIRS compared with non-SIRS matched patients (12.0% vs 6.5%, P < .001).
There is a significant association between IBT and the development of SIRS. IBT may induce SIRS, and reductions in IBT may decrease the incidence of postoperative SIRS.
American journal of surgery 02/2013; 205(4). DOI:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2012.07.042 · 2.29 Impact Factor
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