An Ecological Model of Workplace Bullying: A Guide for Intervention and Research

School of Nursing, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
Nursing Forum 04/2011; 46(2):55-63. DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-6198.2011.00213.x
Source: PubMed


The origins and outcomes of workplace bullying can be understood through the use of a conceptual model which is based on the ecological perspective. This model portrays the work environment as a series of nested, interconnected layers that exist within society as a whole. These layers are society (macrosystem), the corporation (exosystem), the co-workers and managers of the bully and target (mesosystem), and the bully and target (microsystem). Workplace bullying does not occur in isolation. Elements at each of these levels serve as antecedents to bullying, and the outcomes of bullying are manifested at each of these levels. These antecedents and outcomes need to be considered when developing interventions that target workplace bullying. The model can be used as a theoretical framework to guide intervention planning and evaluation, and can also be used to guide the formulation of questions for empirical research.

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    • "Similarly, young nurses may face greater bullying than old nurses (Vessey et al., 2009; Yildirim, 2009). A rite of passage , where new graduates are tested and pranked by senior nurses, is a form of hazing but is often viewed as a cultural norm (Center, 2011; Cleary et al., 2010; Johnson, 2011; Laschinger et al., 2010; Rosenstein & O'Daniel, 2008; Vessey et al., 2009). Higher prevalence of bullying behaviors may exist at the primary hospital than at the orthopedic or women's and children's hospitals because it is a trauma center and has multiple ICUs, multiple service lines, and multiple surgical units (Rosenstein & O'Daniel, 2008; Vessey et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: AIM:: The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between three types of bullying (person-related, work-related, and physically intimidating) with two types of outcomes (psychological/behavioral responses of nurses and medical errors). In addition, it investigates if the three types of bullying behaviors vary with age or gender of nurses and if the extent of bullying varies across different facilities in an institution. Nurses play an integral role in achieving safe and effective health care. To ensure nurses are functioning at their optimal level, health care organizations need to reduce negative components that impact nurses' job performance and their mental and physical health. Mitigating bullying from the workplace may be necessary to create and maintain a high-performing, caring, and safe hospital culture. Using an internal e-mail system, an e-mail requesting the participants to complete the questionnaire on Survey Monkey was sent to a sample of 1,078 nurses employed across three facilities at a university hospital system in Midwest. Two hundred forty-one completed questionnaires were received with a response rate of 23%. Bullying was measured utilizing the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R). Outcomes (psychological/behavioral responses of nurses and medical errors) were measured using Rosenstein and O'Daniel's (2008) modified scales. Person-related bullying showed significant positive relationships with psychological/behavioral responses and medical errors. Work-related bullying showed a significant positive relationship with psychological/behavioral responses, but not with medical errors. Physically intimidating bullying did not show a significant relationship to either outcome. Whereas person-related bullying was found to be negatively associated with age of nurses, physically intimidating bullying was positively associated with age. Male nurses experienced higher work-related bullying than female nurses. Findings from this study suggest that bullying behaviors exist and affect psychological/behavioral responses of nurses such as stress and anxiety and medical errors. Health care organizations should identify bullying behaviors and implement bullying prevention strategies to reduce those behaviors and the adverse effects that they may have on psychological/behavioral responses of nurses and medical errors.
    Health care management review 02/2014; 40(2). DOI:10.1097/HMR.0000000000000015 · 1.30 Impact Factor
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    • "Some studies (Hutchinson et al., 2010; Johnson, 2009) underline that some organisational and group factors seem to create a favourable atmosphere for emergence and tolerance of nurses' bullying. Johnson (2011) proposed the ecological model and stated that: " Workplace violence does not occur in isolation " (p. 55). "
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    ABSTRACT: Horizontal mobbing is a process of systematic and repeated aggression towards a worker by coworkers. Among others, stress has been pointed out as one of the antecedents that favors the onset of horizontal mobbing, whereas group support to the target could act as a buffer. Moreover, the social identity approach emphasizes that group identity is an antecedent of group support. This study explores the interaction of group support and group identity in the explanation of horizontal mobbing in a sample (N = 388) of registered nurses and licensed practical nurses employed at two large hospitals in Madrid and Navarre (Spain). The results show that stress is positively associated to horizontal mobbing, whereas group support and group identity were negative predictors of horizontal mobbing. Furthermore, the combination of low group identity and low group support precipitated HM among nurses.
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