An Ecological Model of Workplace Bullying: A Guide for Intervention and Research
ABSTRACT The origins and outcomes of workplace bullying can be understood through the use of a conceptual model which is based on the ecological perspective. This model portrays the work environment as a series of nested, interconnected layers that exist within society as a whole. These layers are society (macrosystem), the corporation (exosystem), the co-workers and managers of the bully and target (mesosystem), and the bully and target (microsystem). Workplace bullying does not occur in isolation. Elements at each of these levels serve as antecedents to bullying, and the outcomes of bullying are manifested at each of these levels. These antecedents and outcomes need to be considered when developing interventions that target workplace bullying. The model can be used as a theoretical framework to guide intervention planning and evaluation, and can also be used to guide the formulation of questions for empirical research.
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- "Some studies (Hutchinson et al., 2010; Johnson, 2009) underline that some organisational and group factors seem to create a favourable atmosphere for emergence and tolerance of nurses' bullying. Johnson (2011) proposed the ecological model and stated that: " Workplace violence does not occur in isolation " (p. 55). "
ABSTRACT: Prior studies have been unable to determine underlying mechanisms by which the negative relation with mentors affects mentees' satisfaction and health. We consider the Social Identity Theory as theoretical framework to understand the possible influence of negative mentoring on mentees. The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between: 1) negative mentoring experiences and group identification and, 2) nurses' job satisfaction and health complaints, as mediated by nurses' bullying experiences. A longitudinal design was used. The study employs a longitudinal design, with Time 1 (May-June 2010) and Time 2 (2010 September-October 2010). At Time 1 we assessed negative mentoring experiences and group identification, while at Time 2 we assessed workplace bullying, job satisfaction and health complaints. The results have confirmed the hypothesized relationship. Data analysis has revealed a partial mediation model in which negative mentoring experiences and group identification explained job satisfaction. This mediation has not been found in the case of health complaints. This study expands the application of Social Identity Theory to nurses' mentoring. The findings of the study support that negative mentoring experiences and group identification affect job satisfaction among nurses due to workplace bullying. Prevention of pervasive long term effects of negative mentoring relationships has been suggested.Nurse education today 07/2013; 34(4). DOI:10.1016/j.nedt.2013.07.006 · 1.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Horizontal mobbing is a process of systematic and repeated aggression towards a worker by coworkers. Among others, stress has been pointed out as one of the antecedents that favors the onset of horizontal mobbing, whereas group support to the target could act as a buffer. Moreover, the social identity approach emphasizes that group identity is an antecedent of group support. This study explores the interaction of group support and group identity in the explanation of horizontal mobbing in a sample (N = 388) of registered nurses and licensed practical nurses employed at two large hospitals in Madrid and Navarre (Spain). The results show that stress is positively associated to horizontal mobbing, whereas group support and group identity were negative predictors of horizontal mobbing. Furthermore, the combination of low group identity and low group support precipitated HM among nurses.Nursing outlook 05/2013; 61(3):e25-31. DOI:10.1016/j.outlook.2013.03.002 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Competition, work intensification and requirements for efficiency are some of the hallmarks of the modern work environment. Pressures in such settings can result in stress caused by long work hours, a lack of work–life balance and interpersonal conflict. The legal profession is prone to negative impacts due to its highly competitive environment. This, coupled with established hierarchical structures, significant power imbalances and pressure to measure work input rather than output (billable hours), can create ‘toxic’ settings. This paper reports the findings of a study of dignity and respect in the legal profession. Results indicate that many of the issues arise due to negative workplace cultures brought about and perpetuated by work practices and the leadership of the firm. Often the prevailing culture of intense competition, and a win-at-all-costs mentality, has negative repercussions for the security and standing of individuals. Those with position and power use work practices such as billable hours to push others to perform at extraordinary levels, in turn adversely affecting their well-being, quality of work life and tenure in the organisation or profession. The way forward would require a multi-pronged approach and cooperation and collaboration by the relevant stakeholders: regulators, professional associations, institutions and individuals.International Journal of the Legal Profession 07/2013; 20(2). DOI:10.1080/09695958.2013.874350