An Ecological Model of Workplace Bullying: A Guide for Intervention and Research

School of Nursing, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
Nursing Forum 04/2011; 46(2):55-63. DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-6198.2011.00213.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The origins and outcomes of workplace bullying can be understood through the use of a conceptual model which is based on the ecological perspective. This model portrays the work environment as a series of nested, interconnected layers that exist within society as a whole. These layers are society (macrosystem), the corporation (exosystem), the co-workers and managers of the bully and target (mesosystem), and the bully and target (microsystem). Workplace bullying does not occur in isolation. Elements at each of these levels serve as antecedents to bullying, and the outcomes of bullying are manifested at each of these levels. These antecedents and outcomes need to be considered when developing interventions that target workplace bullying. The model can be used as a theoretical framework to guide intervention planning and evaluation, and can also be used to guide the formulation of questions for empirical research.

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    • "Some studies (Hutchinson et al., 2010; Johnson, 2009) underline that some organisational and group factors seem to create a favourable atmosphere for emergence and tolerance of nurses' bullying. Johnson (2011) proposed the ecological model and stated that: " Workplace violence does not occur in isolation " (p. 55). "
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