Article

# Entropy production in the nonequilibrium steady states of interacting many-body systems.

Theory of Soft Condensed Matter, Université du Luxembourg, Luxembourg, L-1511 Luxembourg.

Physical Review E (Impact Factor: 2.31). 03/2011; 83(3 Pt 1):031107. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.83.031107 Source: PubMed

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**ABSTRACT:**Stochastic thermodynamics as reviewed here systematically provides a framework for extending the notions of classical thermodynamics such as work, heat and entropy production to the level of individual trajectories of well-defined non-equilibrium ensembles. It applies whenever a non-equilibrium process is still coupled to one (or several) heat bath(s) of constant temperature. Paradigmatic systems are single colloidal particles in time-dependent laser traps, polymers in external flow, enzymes and molecular motors in single molecule assays, small biochemical networks and thermoelectric devices involving single electron transport. For such systems, a first-law like energy balance can be identified along fluctuating trajectories. For a basic Markovian dynamics implemented either on the continuum level with Langevin equations or on a discrete set of states as a master equation, thermodynamic consistency imposes a local-detailed balance constraint on noise and rates, respectively. Various integral and detailed fluctuation theorems, which are derived here in a unifying approach from one master theorem, constrain the probability distributions for work, heat and entropy production depending on the nature of the system and the choice of non-equilibrium conditions. For non-equilibrium steady states, particularly strong results hold like a generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem involving entropy production. Ramifications and applications of these concepts include optimal driving between specified states in finite time, the role of measurement-based feedback processes and the relation between dissipation and irreversibility. Efficiency and, in particular, efficiency at maximum power can be discussed systematically beyond the linear response regime for two classes of molecular machines, isothermal ones such as molecular motors, and heat engines such as thermoelectric devices, using a common framework based on a cycle decomposition of entropy production.Reports on Progress in Physics 12/2012; 75(12):126001. · 13.23 Impact Factor - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**Derivation of a phase–space diffusion limit (D-L) allows to obtain a useful formula for a characteristic width of the macroion-channeling filter, controlling model (dis)ordered protein aggregations in a non-ideal aqueous solution. The channel’s width is estimated at the order of an inner half-width of the Stern-type double layer circumventing the growing object and depends in turn on an interplay of the local thermal and electrostatic conditions. The interfacial channeling effect manifests at the edge of biomolecular hydration-duration dependent (non)Markovianity of the system. The interface vs. solution aggregation late-time dynamics are discussed in such local (non)isothermal context with the aim to suggest their experimental assessment.Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications 08/2013; 392(15):3155–3167. · 1.68 Impact Factor - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**We have considered a one-dimensional coagulation-decoagulation system of classical particles on a finite lattice with reflecting boundaries. It is known that the system undergoes a phase transition from a high-density to a low-density phase. Using a matrix product approach we have obtained an exact expression for the average entropy production rate of the system in the thermodynamic limit. We have also performed a large-deviation analysis for fluctuations of entropy production rate and particle current. It turns out that the characteristics of the kink in the large deviation function can be used to spot the phase transition point. We have found that for very weak driving field (when the system approaches its equilibrium) and also for very strong driving field (when the system is in the low-density phase) the large deviation function for fluctuations of entropy production rate is almost parabolic, while in the high-density phase it prominently deviates from Gaussian behavior. The validity of the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation relation for the large deviation function for particle current is also verified.Physical Review E 01/2013; 87(1-1):012138. · 2.31 Impact Factor

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