Youth Depression and Early Childrearing: Stress Generation and Intergenerational Transmission of Depression

Department of Psychology, University of California-Los Angeles, CA 90095-1563, USA.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (Impact Factor: 4.85). 06/2011; 79(3):353-63. DOI: 10.1037/a0023536
Source: PubMed


Broadening the concept of stress generation beyond acute life events, the current study explores predictors of the creation of stressful environments-specifically, selection into early childrearing by age 20. It was predicted that youth with early onset depressive disorders would be at higher risk for early childrearing accompanied by greater depression and parenting maladjustment. Additional analyses tested hypotheses about the roles of interpersonal vulnerability and intergenerational transmission of depression and examined gender differences.
A community sample of 706 adolescents and their mothers were studied at ages 15 and 20. The sample was originally selected to oversample families with depressed mothers.
Results confirmed the hypotheses for women but not men: Young women with depression by age 15 were at greater risk for interpersonal difficulties at age 15 and early childrearing, accompanied by further depression and parenting dysfunction at age 20. The effects of (grand)maternal depression were evident in predicting youth early onset depression and interpersonal difficulties, as well as higher rates of depression among their daughters who had children by age 20.
The study expands the definition of stress generation to include the role of past depression and other risk factors as predictors of selection into a stressful childrearing environment. The findings also describe aspects of the intergenerational transmission of depression. The results highlight potentially important targets for interventions in young women to prevent recurrence of major depression and parenting dysfunction.

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    • "care utilisation and increased work impairment due to physical health problems; addictive substance use; alcohol abuse and dependence; and early child-rearing (Keenan-Miller et al. 2007; Hammen et al. 2013). Similarly, individuals experiencing recurrent episodes of depression are also at greater risk of later mental health disorders and adverse life outcomes (Hammen et al. 2008, 2013; Fergusson et al. 2007). "

    Child Indicators Research 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12187-015-9341-3 · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    • "Childbearing in early ages (< 20 years) is indeed a challenging experience that is associated with high rates of depressive symptoms and the diagnosis of depression in females (Hammen et al. 2011). Adolescents still have a tendency to be self-centered and exhibit a partially formal thinking style, although marriage and motherhood require being ready to meet all the needs of a child, while sometimes neglecting one's own needs and more sophisticated communication styles. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. It remains unclear whether or not the vulnerability of depression in women of reproductive age is related with pregnancy or perinatal period. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of depressive disorders and related factors in a large sample of non-perinatal women of reproductive age. Method. This study involved 589 women of reproductive age. At baseline, sociodemographic data and premenstrual assessment forms were completed, and screening tests for the assessment of the severity of depressive symptoms were administered to all of the participants. Participants who had over scale scores of the cut-off point in the screening instruments were assessed with module A of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID-I) to determine DSM IV Axis I disorders. Results. The prevalence of depressive disorders was 32.8%. Depressive disorders had high rates in women who were married at younger ages and who had three or more children. Although the prevalence of depressive disorders was 32.8%, only 10.4% of the women had follow-up and treatment in a psychiatric outpatient clinic. Conclusion. Low education levels, early maternal age, and having more than three children and higher premenstrual symptom scores were risk factors for depressive disorders in non-perinatal reproductive age.
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    • "In fact, by the age of 21 years, up to 14.8 % of individuals have met criteria for a mood disorder [2]. Depression can have significant lasting effects when diagnosed in childhood and adolescence, and has been associated with later interpersonal difficulties, early parenthood, impaired school performance, unemployment, and other mental disorders and substance use disorders [3–5]. Despite the significant burden of depression on children and adolescents, only a minority receives any treatment [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Depression is a common condition among children and adolescents, with lasting detrimental effects on health, and social and occupational functioning. Despite being well-positioned to treat depression, primary care providers (PCPs) cite significant barriers. This review aims to summarize recent evidence to provide practical guidance to PCPs on the management of pediatric depression in their practices. Following identification and assessment, PCPs should provide general initial management. Children and adolescents with mild depression can be managed with active support and symptom monitoring, while those with moderate-to-severe depression can be treated with psychotherapy and/or antidepressants, which may involve referral to mental health specialty care. Less is known about the treatment of depression in children under the age of 12 years, who may be candidates for earlier referral to mental health specialty care. PCPs have the potential to improve the recognition and management of depression in young people, having lasting individual and societal benefits.
    Current Psychiatry Reports 08/2013; 15(8):381. DOI:10.1007/s11920-013-0381-4 · 3.24 Impact Factor
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