Article

Emotional memory in early steroid abnormalities: an FMRI study of adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

Division of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
Developmental Neuropsychology (Impact Factor: 2.67). 05/2011; 36(4):473-92. DOI: 10.1080/87565641.2010.549866
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Hormonal imbalances during development may have long-lasting effects. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we compared 14 youths with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH), a genetic disorder of hormonal dysfunction, with 22 healthy controls on memory encoding of emotional faces. Patients remembered fewer faces than controls, particularly fearful faces. FMRI data to successfully encoded fearful faces revealed that males with CAH showed significant activations in amygdala, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate relative to unaffected males, while females with CAH demonstrated deactivations relative to unaffected females in these regions. Findings indicate that steroid abnormalities during development can have important effects on neural correlates of emotional memory.

0 Followers
 · 
97 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The triadic neural systems model is a heuristic tool, which was developed with the goal of providing a framework for neuroscience research into motivated behaviors. Unlike dual models that highlight dynamics between approach systems centered on striatal function and control systems centered on prefrontal cortex, the triadic model also includes an avoidance system, centered on amygdala-related circuits. A first application of this model has been to account for adolescent behavior.
    Brain and Cognition 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.bandc.2014.01.006 · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Various neurological and psychiatric manifestations have been recorded in children with adrenal disorders. Based on literature review and on personal case-studies and case-series we focused on the pathophysiological and clinical implications of glucocorticoid-related, mineralcorticoid-related, and catecholamine-related paediatric nervous system involvement. Childhood Cushing syndrome can be associated with long-lasting cognitive deficits and abnormal behaviour, even after resolution of the hypercortisolism. Exposure to excessive replacement of exogenous glucocorticoids in the paediatric age group (e.g., during treatments for adrenal insufficiency) has been reported with neurological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities (e.g., delayed myelination and brain atrophy) due to potential corticosteroid-related myelin damage in the developing brain and the possible impairment of limbic system ontogenesis. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), a disorder of unclear pathophysiology characterised by increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, has been described in children with hypercortisolism, adrenal insufficiency, and hyperaldosteronism, reflecting the potential underlying involvement of the adrenal-brain axis in the regulation of CSF pressure homeostasis. Arterial hypertension caused by paediatric adenomas or tumours of the adrenal cortex or medulla has been associated with various hypertension-related neurological manifestations. The development and maturation of the central nervous system (CNS) through childhood is tightly regulated by intrinsic, paracrine, endocrine, and external modulators, and perturbations in any of these factors, including those related to adrenal hormone imbalance, could result in consequences that affect the structure and function of the paediatric brain. Animal experiments and clinical studies demonstrated that the developing (i.e., paediatric) CNS seems to be particularly vulnerable to alterations induced by adrenal disorders and/or supraphysiological doses of corticosteroids. Physicians should be aware of potential neurological manifestations in children with adrenal dysfunction to achieve better prevention and timely diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. Further studies are needed to explore the potential neurological, cognitive, and psychiatric long-term consequences of high doses of prolonged corticosteroid administration in childhood.
    International Journal of Endocrinology 09/2014; 2014:282489. DOI:10.1155/2014/282489 · 1.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autossomic recessive disorder caused by impaired steroidogenesis. Patients with CAH may present adrenal insufficiency with or without salt-wasting, as well as various degrees of virilization and fertility impairment, carrying a high incidence of testicular adrenal rest tumors and increased incidence of adrenal tumors. The diagnosis of CAH is made based on the adrenocortical profile hormonal evaluation and genotyping, in selected cases. Follow-up is mainly based on hormonal and clinical evaluation. Utility of imaging in this clinical setting may be helpful for the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of the patients, although recommendations according to most guidelines are weak when present. Thus, the authors aimed to conduct a narrative synthesis of how imaging can help in the management of patients with CAH, especially focused on genitography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.
    Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia 10/2014; 58(7):701-8. DOI:10.1590/0004-2730000003371 · 0.68 Impact Factor