Preferential depletion of CD2low plasmacytoid dendritic cells in HIV-infected subjects
ABSTRACT Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are decreased in number and are functionally impaired in HIV act reasons for pDCs depletion are still unknown. It was recently reported that pDCs can be divided into two functionally distinct populations based on their CD2 expression level. To determine how the CD2(high) and CD2(low) populations are affected by HIV infection, we analyzed their frequencies in the peripheral blood of HIV-infected subjects and healthy controls. We found that the CD2(low) pDC subset was preferentially depleted in infected individuals. The frequency of CD2(low) pDCs correlated with the CD4(+) T-cell count but not with the plasma viral load. This finding furthers our understanding of the causes and consequences of pDC depletion during HIV infection.
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ABSTRACT: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC), natural type-1 interferon (IFN) producing cells, could play a role in the innate anti-HIV immune response. Previous reports indicated that PDC IFN production is induced by HIV. Our results show a more robust IFN induction when purified PDC (>95%) were exposed to HIV-infected cells. This effect was not observed with non-viable cells, DNA, and RNA extracted from infected cells, and viral proteins. The response was blocked by anti-CD4 and neutralizing anti-gp120 antibodies as well as soluble CD4. IFN induction by HIV-infected cells was also prevented by low-dose chloroquine, which inhibits endosomal acidification. PDC IFN release resulted in reduced HIV production by infected CD4+ cells, supporting an anti-HIV activity of PDC. Stimulated CD4+ cells induced PDC activation and maturation; markers for PDC migration (CCR7) were enhanced by HIV-infected CD4+ cells only. This latter finding could explain the decline in circulating PDC in HIV-infected individuals.Virology 01/2006; 343(2):256-66. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2005.09.059 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Infection of primates by HIV-1 and SIV induces multiple hematological abnormalities of central hematopoietic origin. Although these defects greatly contribute to the pathophysiology of HIV-1 infection, the molecular basis for altered BM function remains unknown. Here we show that when cynomolgus macaques were infected with SIV, the multipotent potential of their hematopoietic progenitor cells was lost, and this correlated with downregulation of STAT5A and STAT5B expression. However, forced expression of STAT5B entirely rescued the multipotent potential of the hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, an accessory viral protein required for efficient SIV and HIV replication and pathogenicity, "Negative factor" (Nef), was essential for SIV-mediated impairment of the multipotent potential of hematopoietic progenitors ex vivo and in vivo. This newly uncovered property of Nef was both conserved between HIV-1 and SIV strains and entirely dependent upon the presence of PPARgamma in targeted cells. Further, PPARgamma agonists mimicked Nef activity by inhibiting STAT5A and STAT5B expression and hampering the functionality of hematopoietic progenitors both ex vivo and in vivo. These findings have extended the role of Nef in the pathogenicity of HIV-1 and SIV and reveal a pivotal role for the PPARgamma/STAT5 pathway in the regulation of early hematopoiesis. This study may provide a basis for investigating the potential therapeutic benefits of PPARgamma antagonists in both patients with AIDS and individuals with hematopoietic disorders.Journal of Clinical Investigation 06/2008; 118(5):1765-75. DOI:10.1172/JCI33037 · 13.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recently it has been shown that the 2 populations of blood dendritic cells (DCs), termed plasmacytoid (pcDCs) and myeloid (myDCs), are reduced in HIV-1 infection. This study aimed to determine whether these 2 populations are targets for HIV-1 infection and whether their ability to stimulate T-lymphocyte proliferation is affected. Highly purified populations of myDCs and pcDCs were isolated from the blood of antiretroviral treatment-naive patients and assessed for the level of HIV provirus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We show that both populations are targets for HIV-1 infection as indicated by the presence of provirus in 12 of 14 pcDC and 13 of 14 myDC samples tested. A proportion of this provirus is integrated in myDCs. The ability of both myDCs and pcDCs from HIV-1-infected patients to stimulate allogeneic T-lymphocyte proliferation in a 6-day mixed leukocyte reaction was severely impaired, but was not mediated by secondary infection of T lymphocytes. Thus, in addition to depletion, both myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs are infected and show impaired functional capacity. These findings suggest that infection, depletion, and dysfunction of dendritic cells may contribute to the immunosuppression associated with HIV-1 disease.Blood 07/2003; 101(11):4505-11. DOI:10.1182/blood-2002-10-3189 · 9.78 Impact Factor