A comparison of conventional and computer-assisted semen analysis (CRISMAS software) using samples from 166 young Danish men.
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to compare assessments of sperm concentration and sperm motility analysed by conventional semen analysis with those obtained by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) (Copenhagen Rigshospitalet Image House Sperm Motility Analysis System (CRISMAS) 4.6 software) using semen samples from 166 young Danish men. The CRISMAS software identifies sperm concentration and classifies spermatozoa into three motility categories. To enable comparison of the two methods, the four motility stages obtained by conventional semen analysis were, based on their velocity classifications, divided into three stages, comparable to the three CRISMAS motility categories: rapidly progressive (A), slowly progressive (B) and non-progressive (C+D). Differences between the two methods were large for all investigated parameters (P < 0.001). CRISMAS overestimated sperm concentration and the proportion of rapidly progressive spermatozoa and, consequently, underestimated the percentages of slowly progressive and non-progressive spermatozoa, compared to the conventional method. To investigate whether results drifted according to time of semen analysis, results were pooled into quarters according to date of semen analysis. CRISMAS motility results appeared more stable over time compared to the conventional analysis; however, neither method showed any trends. Apparently, CRISMAS CASA results and results from the conventional method were not comparable with respect to sperm concentration and motility analysis. This needs to be accounted for in clinics using this software and in studies of determinants of these semen characteristics.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent chemicals with unique water-, dirt-, and oil-repellent properties, and suspected endocrine disrupting activity. The PFAA compounds perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are found globally in humans, and since they readily cross the placental barrier, in utero exposure may be a cause of concern. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether in utero exposure to PFOA and PFOS affects semen quality, testicular volume, and reproductive hormone profile. METHODS: We recruited 169 male offspring (19-21 years old) of a pregnancy cohort established in Aarhus, Denmark in 1988-89, corresponding to 37.6% of the eligible sons. Each provided a semen sample that was analysed for sperm concentration, total count, motility, and morphology, and a blood sample that was used to measure reproductive hormones. As a proxy of in utero exposure, PFOA and PFOS were measured in maternal blood samples from pregnancy week 30. RESULTS: Multivariable linear regression analysis suggested that in utero exposure to PFOA was associated with lower adjusted sperm concentration (p trend=0.01) and total sperm count (p trend=0.001), and with higher adjusted levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) (p trend=0.03) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) (p trend=0.01). PFOS did not appear to be associated with any of the outcomes assessed, before or after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that in utero exposure to PFOA may affect adult human male semen quality and reproductive hormone levels.Environmental Health Perspectives 01/2013; 121(4). DOI:10.1289/ehp.1205118 · 7.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Persistent organochlorine pollutants are ubiquitous, bioaccumulative compounds with potential endocrine disrupting effects. They cross the placental barrier - thus the developing fetus is exposed in utero. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) during pregnancy are associated with sons' semen quality and reproductive hormone levels. During 2008-2009, we recruited 176 male offspring from a Danish cohort of pregnant women who participated in a study in 1988-1989. Each provided semen- and blood samples that were analysed for sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, and reproductive hormone levels, respectively. Maternal blood samples from pregnancy week 30 were analysed for concentrations of six PCBs (PCB-118, -138, -153, -156, -170, and -180) and p,p'-DDE. Potential associations between in utero exposure to ΣPCBs (pmol/mL), Σdioxin like-(DL) PCBs (PCB-118 and -156) (pmol/mL), and p,p'-DDE and semen quality and reproductive hormone levels were investigated using multiple regression. Maternal median (range) exposure levels of ∑PCB, ∑DL-PCB, and p,p'-DDE were 10.0 (2.1-35.0) pmol/mL, 0.8 (0.2-2.7) pmol/mL, and 8.0 (0.7-55.3) pmol/mL, respectively, reflecting typical background exposure levels in the late 1980s in Denmark. Results suggested that in utero exposure to ∑PCB, ∑DL-PCB, and p,p'-DDE was not statistically significantly associated with semen quality measures or reproductive hormone levels. Thus, results based on maternal PCB and p,p'-DDE concentrations alone are not indicative of long-term consequences for male reproductive health, however, we cannot exclude that these POPs in concert with other endocrine modulating compounds may have adverse effects.Reproduction (Cambridge, England) 09/2014; 148(6). DOI:10.1530/REP-13-0488 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine the degree of compliance of Polish laboratories with World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations, with regard to semen analysis methodology. A survey requesting information about methods of semen analysis was distributed to employees of 55 laboratories. Respondents who had participated in external seminological workshops (31%) were termed certified respondents (CR), the remaining (69%)-non-certified respondents (NCR). Only one laboratory (6%) in the CR group and none in the NCR were compliant with WHO guidelines for methods and equipment used to evaluate seminal volume, sperm motility, concentration, vitality and morphology. Most problems were of volume measurement (weighing method was reported by 17% of CR and 10% of NCR) and staining method for sperm morphology (Papanicolau or Diff-Quik were found in 33% of CR and 23% of NCR). A three- or four-point grading of sperm motility was used by the majority of respondents; however, 17% of CR and 37% of NCR did not use a laboratory counter to tally spermatozoa. Although a haemocytometer method was used by 80% of laboratories in each group, the improved Neubauer chamber was used only by 42% of CR and 19% of NCR. In each group, 24% of laboratories did not perform a vitality test. Procedural errors and the interchangeable utilization of two or even three methods to analyse a given parameter was observed in both groups. The results indicate a need for standardisation of the methods and continuous, unified training in semen analysis in Polish laboratories.Asian Journal of Andrology advance online publication, 1 July 2013; doi:10.1038/aja.2013.48.Asian Journal of Andrology 07/2013; DOI:10.1038/aja.2013.48 · 2.53 Impact Factor