Mania and depression. Mixed, not stirred
ABSTRACT Current criteria for mixed bipolar episode do not allow an adequate understanding of a vast majority of bipolar patients with mixed (hypo) manic-depressive features, keeping the qualification of "mixed episodes" for bipolar type I only. This study was aimed to test the existence of a bipolar-mixed continuum by comparing the characteristics of three groups classified according to patterns of past and current manic or mixed episodes.
134 bipolar I inpatients were divided according to their pattern of excitatory "mixed-like" episodes in three groups: 1) lifetime history of purely manic episodes without mixed features (PMA); 2) lifetime history of both manic and mixed episodes (MIX) and 3) lifetime history exclusively of mixed, but not manic, episodes (PMIX). Differences in clinical and demographic characteristics were analyzed by using chi-square head-to-head for categorical data, one-way ANOVA for continuous variables and Tukey's post-hoc comparison. Logistic regression was used to control for data validity.
PMIX had higher rates of depressive predominant polarity and less lifetime history of psychotic symptoms, and had received more antidepressants both lifetime and during 6 months prior to index episode. PMIX had more suicide attempts and Axis I comorbidity than PMA.
PMIX is likely to have a higher risk for suicide and higher rates of comorbidities; current DSM-IV-TR criteria are not fit for correctly classifying these patients and this may affect treatment appropriateness. The concept of "mixicity" should be extended beyond bipolar I disorder to other bipolar disorder subtypes.
SourceAvailable from: Eduard VietaEuropean Neuropsychopharmacology 10/2013; 23:S370-S371. DOI:10.1016/S0924-977X(13)70585-6 · 5.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to determine the distinct clusters of subtypes among patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and the relationship between the clinical features of BD patients, particularly substance use disorders (SUDs) and the clusters. The present study initially assessed 96 inpatients who were hospitalized in the psychiatric clinic of Bakırköy Prof. Mazhar Osman Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatry and Neurology, for a BD manic episode. All patients were evaluated during the initial 3 days of their admission using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS),the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The factor structures of the psychopathological scale items were determined with factor analyses and based on the factor loadings, cluster analyses were performed. The relationships among the clusters and the clinical variables were then evaluated. The factor analyses generated three factors: increased psychomotor activity, dysphoria, and psychosis. A hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to the three factor loadings, and revealed that factor 1 (increased psychomotor activity) was high in cluster 1 and that the effects of factors 2 (dysphoria) and 3 (psychosis) were high in cluster 2. Within cluster 1 (Psychomotor elevation), 39% of patients were diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder while 31.6% of patients in the cluster 2 (dysphoric-psychotic) were diagnosed with both alcohol and cannabis use disorders. Within cluster 2 (dysphoric-psychotic), 47.4% of patients had one suicide attempt and 21.1% of patients had two or more attempts during their lifetime. There was a significant difference in the presence of SUDs between patients with psychomotor elevation and patients in dysphoric-psychotic cluster. This may be point out that pure manic patients with BD self-medicate using the sedative effects of alcohol and the causal relationship between cannabis and psychosis. Using a dimensional approach to study BD may enhance detection of the biological correlates of BD and improve the treatment and outcomes of the disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2014; 174C:569-573. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.11.016 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Objective: Depressive episodes predominate over the course of bipolar disorder and cause considerable functional impairment. Antidepressants are frequently prescribed in the treatment of bipolar depression, despite concerns about efficacy and risk of switching to mania. This review provides a critical examination of the evidence for and against the use of antidepressants in bipolar depression. Data Sources: English-language peer-reviewed literature and evidence-based guidelines published between January 1, 1980, and March 2014, were identified using PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO/PsycLIT, and EMBASE. All searches contained the terms antidepressants, bipolar depression, depressive episodes in bipolar disorder, and treatment guidelines for bipolar depression. Meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and practice guidelines were included. Bibliographies from these publications were used to identify additional articles of interest. Data Extraction: Studies involving treatment of bipolar depression with antidepressant monotherapy, adjunctive use of antidepressant with a mood stabilizer, and meta-analysis of such studies combined were reviewed. Conclusions: The body of evidence on the use of antidepressant monotherapy to treat patients with bipolar depression is contentious, but the recommendations from evidence-based guidelines do not support antidepressant monotherapy for bipolar depression. Only when mood stabilizer or atypical antipsychotic monotherapy has failed should adjunctive treatment with an antidepressant be considered.The Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 10/2014; 16(5):e1-e8. DOI:10.4088/PCC.14r01653