Radiotherapy dose perturbation of esophageal stents examined in an experimental model.
ABSTRACT To investigate the radiotherapy dose perturbations caused by esophageal stents in patients undergoing external beam treatments for esophageal cancer.
Four esophageal stents were examined (three metallic stents: WallFlex, Ultraflex, and Alveolus; one nonmetallic stent with limited radiopaque markers for visualization: Polyflex). All experiments were performed in a liquid water phantom with a custom acrylic stent holder. Radiochromic film was used to measure the dose distributions adjacent to the stents at locations proximal and distal to the radiation source. The stents were placed in an air-filled cavity to simulate the esophagus. Treatment plans were created and delivered for photon energies of 6 and 15 MV, and data analysis was performed on uniform regions of interest, according to the size and geometric placement of the films, to quantify the dose perturbations.
The three metallic stents produced the largest dose perturbations with distinct patterns of "hot" spots (increased dose) measured proximal to the radiation source (up to 15.4%) and both "cold" (decreased dose) and hot spots measured distal to the radiation source (range, -6.1%-5.8%). The polymeric Polyflex stent produced similar dose perturbations when the radiopaque markers were examined (range, -7.6%-15.4%). However, when the radiopaque markers were excluded from the analysis, the Polyflex stent produced significantly smaller dose perturbations, with maximum hot spots of 7.3% and cold spots of -3.2%.
The dose perturbations caused by esophageal stents during the treatment of esophageal cancer using external beam radiotherapy should be understood. These perturbations will result in hot and cold spots in the esophageal mucosa, with varying magnitudes depending on the stent. The nonmetallic Polyflex stent appears to be the most suitable for patients undergoing radiotherapy, but further studies are necessary to determine the clinical significance of the dose perturbations.
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ABSTRACT: Identify prognostic factors for survival and patterns of treatment failure after definitive radiochemotherapy for esophageal cancer. Between 2003 and 2006, 143 patients with squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus were retrospectively reviewed. Median age was 65 years (42-81). Median radiation dose was 62.5 Gy (38-72) with 1.8-2 Gy fraction. Median follow-up was 20.8 months (2.8-92.4). Three and 5-year local recurrence-free survival rates were 58.3% and 50.9%. In univariate analysis, traversable esophageal stricture was a prognostic factor. Three, 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival rates were 42.4% and 34.9%. In multivariate analysis, traversable esophageal stricture and stage < IIB were independent prognostic factors. Three and 5-year disease-free survival rates were 30.5% and 25.9%. In multivariate analysis, Nutritional Risk Index (NRI) ≥ 97.5 and performance status (PS) = 0 were independent prognostic factors. Median, 3, and 5-year overall survival rates were 22.1 months, 34.4%, and 19.8%. In multivariate analysis, independent prognostic factors were NRI ≥ 97.5 and PS = 0. Median survival times for the NRI classes (no denutrition, moderate and severe denutrition) were 29.5, 19.7, and 12 months (P = 0.0004), respectively. A major impact of baseline NRI was found in terms of survival; it should be included in future prospective trials.Diseases of the Esophagus 10/2012; 27(6). DOI:10.1111/j.1442-2050.2012.01441.x · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Self-expandable esophageal stents are increasingly used for palliation or as an adjunct to chemoradiation for esophageal neoplasia. The optimal esophageal stent design and material to minimize dose perturbation with external beam radiation are unknown. We sought to quantify the deviation from intended radiation dose as a function of stent material and mesh density design. Methods: A laboratory dosimetric film model was used to quantify perturbation of intended radiation dose among 16 different esophageal stents with varying material and stent mesh density design. Results: Radiation dose enhancement due to stent backscatter ranged from 0 % to 7.3 %, collectively representing a standard difference from the intended mean radiation dose of 1.9 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.5 - 2.2). This enhancement was negligible for polymer-based stents and approached 0 % for the biodegradable stents. In contrast, all metal alloy stents had significant radiation backscatter; this was largely determined by the density of mesh design and not by the type of alloy used. Conclusions: Stent characteristics should be considered when selecting the optimal stent for treatment and palliation of malignant esophageal strictures, especially when adjuvant or neo-adjuvant radiotherapy is planned.Endoscopy 01/2013; 45(1):42-7. DOI:10.1055/s-0032-1325960 · 5.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Metallic airway stents are often used in the management of central airway malignancies. The presence of a metallic foreign body may affect radiation dose in tissue. We studied the effect of a metallic airway stent on radiation dose delivery in a phantom and an in vivo porcine model. A metallic tracheal stent was fitted onto a support in a water phantom. Point dosimeters were positioned in the phantom around the support and the stent. Irradiation was then performed on a linear accelerator with and without the stent. Metallic tracheal stents were deployed in the trachea of three pigs. Dosimeters were implanted in the tissues near (Group 1) and away (Group 2) from the stent. The pigs were then irradiated, and the dose perturbation factor was calculated by comparing the actual dose detected by the dosimeters versus the planned dose. The difference in the dose detected by the dosimeters and the planned dose ranged from 1.8% to 6.1% for the phantom with the stent and 0%-5.3% for the phantom without the stent. These values were largely within the manufacturer's specified error of 5%. No significant difference was observed in the dose perturbation factor for Group 1 and Group 2 dosimeters (0.836 ± 0.058 versus 0.877 ± 0.088, P = 0.220) in all the three pigs. Metallic airway stents do not significantly affect radiation dose in the airway and surrounding tissues in a phantom and porcine model. Radiation treatment planning systems can account for the presence of the stent. External beam radiation can be delivered without concern for significant dose perturbation.Journal of Surgical Research 01/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2014.01.013 · 2.12 Impact Factor