Current status and future prospects of C1 domain ligands as drug candidates.

Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Current topics in medicinal chemistry (Impact Factor: 3.4). 01/2011; 11(11):1370-92.
Source: PubMed


The second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) plays a central role in the signal transduction of G-protein coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases by binding to C1 domain of effector proteins. C1 domain was first identified in protein kinase C (PKC) which comprises a family of ten isoforms that play roles in diverse cellular processes such as proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. Aberrant signaling through PKC isoforms and other C1 domain-containing proteins has been implicated in several pathological disorders. Drug discovery concerning C1 domains has exploited both natural products and rationally designed compounds. Currently, molecules from several classes of C1 domain-binding compounds are in clinical trials; however, still more have the potential to enter the drug development pipeline. This review gives a summary of the recent developments in C1 domain-binding compounds.

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    • "The C1 domain is regarded as an attractive drug target because PKCs and other DAG-responsive C1 domain-containing proteins play key roles in controlling cell proliferation, apoptosis, and motility [11]. Various C1 domain ligands have been described, including some obtained from natural sources and others based on synthesized chemical entities (reviewed in [12]). Several C1 domain-binding compounds, such as the natural compounds bryostatin 1 and ingenol-3-angelate (PEP005), have entered clinical trials for the treatment of different cancers [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Diacylglycerol (DAG)-mediated signaling pathways, such as those mediated by protein kinase C (PKC), are central in regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. DAG-responsive C1 domains are therefore considered attractive drug targets. Our group has designed a novel class of compounds targeted to the DAG binding site within the C1 domain of PKC. We have previously shown that these 5-(hydroxymethyl)isophthalates modulate PKC activation in living cells. In this study we investigated their effects on HeLa human cervical cancer cell viability and proliferation by using standard cytotoxicity tests and an automated imaging platform with machine vision technology. Cellular effects and their mechanisms were further characterized with the most potent compound, HMI-1a3. Isophthalate derivatives with high affinity to the PKC C1 domain exhibited antiproliferative and non-necrotic cytotoxic effects on HeLa cells. The anti-proliferative effect was irreversible and accompanied by cell elongation. HMI-1a3 induced down-regulation of retinoblastoma protein and cyclins A, B1, D1, and E. Effects of isophthalates on cell morphology, cell proliferation and expression of cell cycle-related proteins were different from those induced by phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) or bryostatin 1, but correlated closely to binding affinities. Therefore, the results strongly indicate that the effect is C1 domain-mediated.
    PLoS ONE 05/2011; 6(5):e20053. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0020053 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine/threonine phosphotransferases ubiquitously expressed and involved in multiple cellular functions, such as proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. The C1 domain of PKC represents an attractive drug target, especially for developing PKC activators. Dialkyl 5-(hydroxymethyl)isophthalates are a novel group of synthetic C1 domain ligands that exhibit antiproliferative effect in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells. Here we selected two isophthalates, HMI-1a3 and HMI-1b11, and characterized their effects in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Both of the active isophthalates exhibited significant antiproliferative and differentiation-inducing effects. Since HMI-1b11 did not impair cell survival even at the highest concentration tested (20μM), and supported neurite growth and differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells, we focused on studying its downstream signaling cascades and effects on gene expression. Consistently, genome-wide gene expression microarray and gene set enrichment analysis indicated that HMI-1b11 (10μM) induced changes in genes mainly related to cell differentiation. In particular, further studies revealed that HMI-1b11 exposure induced up-regulation of GAP-43, a marker for neurite sprouting and neuronal differentiation. These effects were induced by a 7-minute HMI-1b11 treatment and specifically depended on PKCα activation, since pretreatment with the selective inhibitor Gö6976 abolished the up-regulation of GAP-43 protein observed at 12hours In parallel, we found that a 7-minute exposure to HMI-1b11 induced PKCα accumulation to the cytoskeleton, an effect that was again prevented by pretreatment with Gö6976. Despite similar binding affinities to PKC, the isophthalates had different effects on PKC-dependent ERK1/2 signaling: HMI-1a3-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was transient, while HMI-1b11 induced a rapid but prolonged ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Overall our data are in accordance with previous studies showing that activation of the PKCα and ERK1/2 pathways participate in regulating neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, since PKC has been classified as one of the cognitive kinases, and activation of PKC is considered a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cognitive disorders, our findings suggest that HMI-1b11 represents a promising lead compound in research aimed to prevent or counteract memory impairment.
    Pharmacological Research 05/2013; 73:44-54. DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2013.04.008 · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ingenol 3-benzoates were investigated with respect to chemical stability, pro-inflammatory effects, cell death induction and PKCδ activation. A correlation between structure, chemical stability and biological activity was found and compared to ingenol mebutate (ingenol 3-angelate) used for field treatment of actinic keratosis. We also provided further support for involvement of PKCδ for induction of oxidative burst and cytokine release. Molecular modeling and dynamics calculations corroborated the essential interactions between key compounds and C1 domain of PKCδ.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 12/2013; 24(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.11.073 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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