Dietary intakes of antioxidant vitamins and mortality from cardiovascular disease: the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC) study.
ABSTRACT Only a few reports have dealt with the association of antioxidant vitamin intakes with mortality or morbidity from cardiovascular disease in Asia. We investigated the relation of dietary vitamins A, E, and C intake with mortality from cardiovascular disease for Japanese men and women.
The subjects were 23,119 men and 35 611 women aged 40 to 79 years without a history of cardiovascular disease or cancer who responded to the food frequency questionnaire as part of the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Cancer Risk (JACC) Study. They were followed up for a median period of 16.5 years. Hazard ratios were calculated per quintile of dietary vitamins A, E, and C intake by using Cox proportional hazard model.
During the 859,962 person-year follow-up, there were 2690 deaths (1343 men and 1347 women) from cardiovascular disease, comprising 1227 (607 men and 620 women) from stroke and 557 (311 men and 246 women) from coronary heart disease. The multivariable hazard ratios (95% CI) associated with the highest versus lowest quintiles of vitamin C intake were 0.70 (0.54 to 0.92) for total stroke, 0.63 (0.41 to 0.97) for coronary heart disease, and 0.79 (0.66 to 0.94) for total cardiovascular disease for women, but the inverse associations observed were weak and did not reach statistical significance for men. No significant association was observed between vitamins A or E intake and risk of mortality for either men or women.
Vitamin C intake is inversely associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease for Japanese women.
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ABSTRACT: Significance: Phagocytes play a key role in promoting the oxidative stress after ischemic stroke occurrence. The phagocytic NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 is a membrane-bound enzyme complex involved in the antimicrobial respiratory burst and free radical production in these cells. Critical issue: NOX2 might promote carotid plaque rupture and stroke occurrence. In addition, NOX2-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) released by resident and recruited phagocytes enhance cerebral ischemic injury, activating the inflammatory apoptotic pathways. The aim of this review is to update evidence on phagocyte-related oxidative stress, focusing on the role of NOX2 as a potential therapeutic target to reduce ROS-related cerebral injury after stroke. Recent advances: Different oxidants have been shown to induce opposite effects on neuronal homeostasis after a stroke. However, several experimental models support the detrimental effects of NOX activity (especially the phagocytic isoform) on brain recovery after stroke. Therapeutic strategies selectively targeting the neurotoxic ROS and increasing neuroprotective oxidants have recently produced promising results. Future Directions: Radical scavenger compounds (such as Ebselen and Edaravone) are under clinical investigation as therapeutic approach against stroke. On the other hand, NOX inhibition might represent a promising strategy to prevent the stroke-related injury. Although selective NOX inhibitors are not yet available, non-selective compounds (such as apocynin and fasudil) provided encouraging results in pre-clinical studies. Whereas additional studies are needed to better evaluate this therapeutic potential in human beings, the development of specific NOX inhibitors (such as monoclonal antibodies, small-molecule inhibitors or aptamers) might further improve brain recovery after stroke.Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 03/2014; · 8.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Though vitamin C supplementation has shown no observed effects on stroke prevention in several clinical trials, uncertainty remains as to whether long-term, low-dose intake influences the development of stroke among general populations. Furthermore, the association between circulating vitamin C and the risk of stroke is also unclear. For further clarification of these issues, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched, and the bibliographies of the retrieved articles were also reviewed to identify eligible studies. Summary relative risk (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed with a random-effects model. The summary RR for the high-versus-low categories was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.74 to 0.90) for dietary vitamin C intake (11 studies), and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.49 to 0.79) for circulating vitamin C (6 studies). The summary RR for each 100 mg/day increment in dietary vitamin C was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.75 to 0.93) (10 studies), and for each 20 μmol/L increment in circulating vitamin C was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.75 to 0.88) (5 studies). Few studies reported results for vitamin C supplements (RR for high-versus-low intake=0.83, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.10, 3 studies). This meta-analysis suggests significant inverse relationships between dietary vitamin C intake, circulating vitamin C, and risk of stroke.Journal of the American Heart Association. 10/2013; 2(6):e000329.
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ABSTRACT: The complication of asthma during pregnancy is associated with a number of poor outcomes for the mother and fetus. This may be partially driven by increased oxidative stress induced by the combination of asthma and pregnancy. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways associated with systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, which contributes to worsening asthma symptoms. Pregnancy alone also intensifies oxidative stress through the systemic generation of excess reactive oxidative species (ROS). Antioxidants combat the damaging effects of ROS; yet antioxidant defenses are reduced in asthma. Diet and nutrition have been postulated as potential factors to combat the damaging effects of asthma. In particular, dietary antioxidants may play a role in alleviating the heightened oxidative stress in asthma. Although there are some observational and interventional studies that have shown protective effects of antioxidants in asthma, assessment of antioxidants in pregnancy are limited and there are no antioxidant intervention studies in asthmatic pregnancies on asthma outcomes. The aims of this paper are to (i) review the relationships between oxidative stress and dietary antioxidants in adults with asthma and asthma during pregnancy, and (ii) provide the rationale for which dietary management strategies, specifically increased dietary antioxidants, might positively impact maternal asthma outcomes. Improving asthma control through a holistic antioxidant dietary approach might be valuable in reducing asthma exacerbations and improving asthma management during pregnancy, subsequently impacting perinatal health.Nutrients 08/2013; 5(8):3212-34. · 3.15 Impact Factor