Background: Recent analyses have shown increases in combined annual HIV diagnosis rates for Asians and Pacific Islanders (API). METHODS: Using surveillance data from 33 states and 4 dependent areas we investigated the epidemiology of HIV among API during 2001-2008. RESULTS: HIV diagnoses for API during 2001-2008 were predominantly among persons age 30-39 years (40%) and males (78%). The primary risk factor for males was sexual contact with males (78%) and for females, heterosexual contact (86%). API were the only racial/ethnic groups with a statistically significant estimated annual percentage increase (4.4%) in HIV diagnoses over the time period. Thirty-seven percent of HIV diagnoses among API progressed to AIDS in <12 months, with significantly greater likelihood among those 30 years and older. Survival was lower among API with AIDS diagnosis after 49 years of age, and was higher among persons with AIDS whose primary risk factor for infection was heterosexual contact. Conclusions: In contrast to other racial/ethnic groups, API were the only groups to show a significant increase in HIV diagnoses. A clearer understanding of the reasons for this trend is needed, so that appropriate interventions can be selected and adapted to prevent increased HIV prevalence among API in the U.S.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: HIV/AIDS prevalence among Asian-American Pacific Islanders (APIs) is low yet rapidly increasing. Prior research from other populations indicates that HIV risk behaviors are associated with specific adverse/risk factors including depression, drug use, history of child sexual abuse, and forced sex. However, no studies have explored the attitudes about sexual risk behaviors and condom use between API women with adverse experiences versus women without such experiences. This qualitative study compares descriptions of sexual history and condom use between the two groups of women. METHODS: A random sample of 24 sexually active API women (16 in the adverse group and 8 in the non-adverse group) was selected for in-depth interviews from a larger study, which included 501 Korean, Chinese, and Vietnamese survey participants. FINDINGS: 14 out of the 16 women in the adverse group described complex sexual histories, with greater number of partners, more casual partners, and the combined use of alcohol/drugs and sex. The 8 women in the non-adverse group had fewer partners who were more long term. However, for both groups of women, condom use was inconsistent. Also, the majority of the women in both groups reported that either they themselves or they together with their partners had decided whether or not to use condoms. Yet 4 women in the adverse group showed lower gender power, with their partners being the primary decision-maker for condom use. CONCLUSION: Given the inconsistent condom use for both groups, all women in this study were at risk for HIV/AIDS. Consistent with prior research, a sub-group of the women in the adverse group with lower gender power seemed particularly at higher risk. Future HIV prevention interventions need to target all API women while screening for lower gender power to identify those with the highest risk of HIV.
Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research 12/2011; DOI:10.4172/2155-6113.S1-004 · 6.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined reasons for and barriers to participating in HIV voluntary counseling and testing for Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) men who have sex with men (MSM) in the U.S.
We collected data between June 2007 and September 2009 in a study known as Men of Asia Testing for HIV, using a cross-sectional community-based participatory design. This national study was conducted in seven U.S. metropolitan cities through a coalition of seven community-based organizations.
Participants included 445 self-identified A/PI MSM aged ≥18 years. Perception of being at risk was the number one reason for testing behaviors. For first-time testers, structural barriers (e.g., language barriers with health professionals) and fear of disclosure (e.g., sexual orientation not known to parents) were deterrents for nontesting in the past. Among previously known HIV-positive men, 22% were not seeing a doctor and 19% were not taking any HIV medications.
HIV testing, care, and treatment policies would be less than optimal without addressing barriers to testing, including stigma related to sexual orientation, among A/PI MSM.
Public Health Reports 01/2012; 127(2):186-94. · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asians and Pacific Islanders (API) are among the fastest growing minority groups within the USA, and this growth has been accompanied by an increase in HIV incidence. Between 2000 and 2010, the API HIV infection rate increased from 4.5% to 8.7%; however, there is a paucity of HIV-related research for this group, and even less is known about the prevalence and correlates of antiretroviral therapy adherence behavior, quality of life, impact of stress, and efficacious self-management among HIV+ API Americans. This paper examines how acculturation and perceived stress affect depression symptomatology and treatment seeking in the HIV+ API population. A series of cross-sectional audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 50 HIV+ API (29 in San Francisco and 21 in New York City). The relationship between acculturation and perceived stress was analyzed, and the results indicate that for those HIV+ API who reported low or moderate acculturation (as compared to those who reported high acculturation), stress was significantly mediated by depression symptomology. Interventions to address acculturation and reduce perceived stress among API generally and Asians specifically are therefore needed.
AIDS Care 07/2014; 26(12):1-5. DOI:10.1080/09540121.2014.936816 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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