Vestibular migraine--validity of clinical diagnostic criteria.
ABSTRACT Clinical recognition of vestibular migraine (VM) is still hampered by the lack of consensus diagnostic criteria. The aim of this study is a long-term evaluation of clinical criteria for definite (dVM) and probable (pVM) vestibular migraine.
We re-assessed 75 patients (67 women, age 24-76 years) with dVM (n=47) or pVM (n=28) according to previously published criteria after a mean follow-up of 8.75±1.3 years. Assessment included a comprehensive neurotological clinical examination, pure tone audiometry and caloric testing.
dVM was confirmed in 40 of 47 patients with a prior diagnosis of dVM (85%). Fourteen of 28 patients initially classified as pVM met criteria for dVM (50%), nine for pVM (32%). Six additional patients with dVM and two with pVM had developed mild sensorineural hearing loss, formally fulfilling criteria for bilateral Menière's disease (MD), but had clinical features atypical of MD. Seven of these also met criteria for dVM at follow-up. The initial diagnosis was completely revised for four patients.
Although VM diagnosis lacks a gold standard for evaluation of diagnostic criteria, repeated comprehensive neurotological evaluation after a long follow-up period indicates not only high reliability but also high validity of presented clinical criteria (positive predictive value 85%). Half of patients with pVM evolve to meet criteria for dVM. However, in a subgroup of VM patients with hearing loss, criteria for dVM and MD are not sufficiently discriminative.
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ABSTRACT: Menière's disease and vestibular migraine (VM) are the most common causes of spontaneous recurrent vertigo. The current diagnostic criteria for the two disorders are mainly based on patients' symptoms, and no biological marker is available. When applying these criteria, an overlap of the two disorders is occasionally observed in clinical practice. Therefore, the present prospective multicenter study aimed to identify accompanying symptoms that may help to differentiate between MD, VM, and probable vestibular migraine (pVM). Two hundred and sixty-eight patients were included in the study (MD: n = 119, VM: n = 84, pVM: n = 65). Patients with MD suffered mainly from accompanying auditory symptoms (tinnitus, fullness of ear, and hearing loss), while accompanying migraine symptoms (migraine-type headache, photo-/phonophobia, visual aura), anxiety, and palpitations were more common during attacks of VM. However, it has to be noted that a subset of MD patients also experienced (migraine-type) headache during the attacks. On the other hand, some VM/pVM patients reported accompanying auditory symptoms. The female/male ratio was statistically higher in VM/pVM as compared to MD, while the age of onset was significantly lower in the former two. The frequency of migraine-type headache was significantly higher in VM as compared to both pVM and MD. Accompanying headache of any type was observed in declining order in VM, pVM, and MD. In conclusion, the present study confirms a considerable overlap of symptoms in MD, VM, and pVM. In particular, we could not identify any highly specific symptom for one of the three entities. It is rather the combination of symptoms that should guide diagnostic reasoning. The identification of common symptom patterns in VM and MD may help to refine future diagnostic criteria for the two disorders.Frontiers in Neurology 12/2014; 5:265.
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ABSTRACT: Literature investigating otolith reflexes in patients with vestibular migraine (VM) is variable and primarily describes the descending saccular pathway. This research aimed to study ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) prevalence and response characteristics in patients with suspected VM and in control patients. The purpose is to assess vulnerabilities within the ascending utricular and descending saccular pathways in the VM population. Retrospective study SETTING: Tertiary academic referral center PATIENTS: 39 adults with VM, 29 control patients MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Air conducted oVEMPs and cVEMPs measured with 500 Hz tone burst stimuli RESULTS: Age of headache onset was most often in childhood or adolescence, with dizziness onset occurring later. The rate of bilaterally absent oVEMPs was significantly higher (28%, p < 0.01) in the VM group compared with the control group (0%). oVEMP amplitude asymmetry ratios were significantly higher for the definite VM (p < 0.01) and probable VM (p = 0.023) groups than the control group. Eleven patients also had history of concussion; they were significantly more likely to demonstrate bilaterally absent oVEMPs (p < 0.01) in comparison to the control patients. When VM patients with a history of concussion were omitted from analysis, differences in oVEMP amplitude asymmetry (p < 0.01) and bilateral oVEMP absence remained significant (p = 0.015). There were no differences in the rate of bilateral cVEMP presence or response parameters between VM and control groups. VEMP presentation differs for some patients diagnosed with VM. The higher rates of abnormal oVEMPs may suggest greater vulnerability within the ascending utricular-ocular pathway in patients with VM.Ontology & Neurotology 11/2014; · 1.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ménière's disease (MD) is characterized by episodic vertigo, fluctuating hearing loss and tinnitus. Vestibular migraine (VM) is a relatively new disorder that is characterized by episodic vertigo or dizziness, coexisting migraine and absence of hearing loss. It is occasionally difficult to distinguish between VM and vestibular MD with headache. Because endolymphatic hydrops (EH) is a characteristic sign of MD, we attempted to evaluate endolymphatic space size in both diseases. Endolymphatic space size in the vestibule and the cochlea was evaluated in seven patients with VM and in seven age- and sex-matched patients with vestibular MD. For visualization of the endolymphatic space, 3T magnetic resonance imaging was taken 4 h after intravenous injection of gadolinium contrast agents using three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and HYbriD of reversed image of positive endolymph signal and native image of positive perilymph signal techniques. In the vestibule of VM patients, EH was not observed, with the exception of two patients with unilateral or bilateral EH. In contrast, in the vestibule of patients with vestibular MD, all patients had significant EH, bilaterally or unilaterally. These results indicate that endolymphatic space size is significantly different between patients with VM and vestibular MD.Journal of Neurology 08/2014; · 3.84 Impact Factor