Maternal HIV/AIDS Status and Neurological Outcomes in Neonates: A Population-Based Study
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, 13201 Bruce B. Downs Blvd., MDC 56, Tampa, FL 33612, USA.Maternal and Child Health Journal (Impact Factor: 2.24). 04/2011; 16(3):641-8. DOI: 10.1007/s10995-011-0799-4
This study sought to examine the association between maternal HIV/AIDS infection and neonatal neurologic conditions in the state of Florida. We analyzed all births in the state of Florida from 1998 to 2007 using hospital discharge data linked to birth certificate records. The main outcomes of interest included selected neonatal neurologic complications, namely: fetal distress, cephalohematoma, intracranial hemorrhage, seizure, feeding difficulties, and other central nervous system complications. The sample size for this study was 1,645,515 records. All forms of substance abuse as well as cesarean section deliveries were more frequent in mothers with HIV/AIDS. Infants born to HIV-infected mothers showed higher proportions of feeding difficulties and seizures whereas HIV-negative mothers had a greater proportion of cases of fetal distress and cephalohematoma. Seizures and feeding difficulties are common among infants born to HIV/AIDS infected mothers. This population-based retrospective cohort study provides further understanding of the association between maternal HIV/AIDS status and neonatal neurological outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: We used propensity scores matching techniques to assess the association between maternal cocaine abuse in pregnancy and the occurrence of placenta-associated syndromes (PAS). Mothers who abused cocaine (n=5026) were matched to controls (n=5026) from a sample of 1,693,197, unexposed mothers in Florida from 1998 to 2007. Cocaine abuse was identified using the ICD-9 principal and secondary diagnosis codes (304.2 for cocaine dependence and 305.6 for cocaine abuse). The outcome of interest, PAS, was identified as any indication in diagnosis field of ICD-9-CM codes for: placental abruption (641.2), oligohydramnios (658.0), placental infarction (656.7, 656.8, 656.9), gestational hypertension (642.3, 642.9), preeclampsia (642.4, 642.5, and 642.7) or eclampsia (642.6). Nearly 6% of mothers in the study sample experienced a condition associated with PAS prior to matching. Women who abused cocaine were 58% more likely to have PAS when compared to women who did not (OR=1.48, 95% confidence interval: 1.33, 1.66). Women who abused cocaine were at elevated odds for placental abruption, placenta infarction and preeclampsia with the most pronounced odds noted for placental abruption (OR=2.79, 95% confidence interval: 2.19, 3.55). These findings indicate that cocaine abuse during pregnancy is associated with more placenta-related disorders than previously reported.Early human development 10/2011; 88(6):333-7. DOI:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2011.09.005 · 1.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Reproductive-age women comprise approximately 25% of all persons living with HIV/AIDS in the United States. HIV infection and smoking during pregnancy are independent risk factors for adverse fetal outcomes. We examined predictors of fetal growth restriction among infants born to HIV-infected mothers who smoke cigarettes in pregnancy. METHODS: We analyzed hospital discharge data linked to birth records from the state of Florida for 1998-2007 (N = 1,645,209). The outcomes of interest included: low and very low birth weight (LBW and VLBW), preterm and very preterm birth (PTB and VPTB), and small for gestational age (SGA). We calculated adjusted rate ratios (ARR) for these outcomes by HIV/AIDS status, smoking status, and sociodemographic variables. We also examined the association between the observed fetal morbidity outcomes and the interaction between HIV/AIDS and smoking status. We employed the generalized estimating equation framework to correct for intracluster correlations. RESULTS: All fetal morbidity outcomes were more common in mothers who had HIV/AIDS, regardless of smoking status. Maternal HIV status and cigarette use were independent predictors of LBW, PTB, and SGA, with morbidity effects more prominent in HIV-infected mothers who smoke cigarettes. We observed a significant interaction between maternal HIV and smoking status, in which mothers who were HIV positive and smoked during pregnancy experienced the greatest risks for LBW (ARR = 2.24 [1.89-2.65]), SGA (ARR = 1.95 [1.67-2.29]), and PTB (ARR = 1.70 [1.42-2.03]).Conclusions:HIV-infected mothers who smoke cigarettes during pregnancy have a heightened risk for adverse fetal morbidity outcomes. There is a need for integration of smoking cessation interventions into ongoing HIV/AIDS programs.Nicotine & Tobacco Research 05/2012; 15(1). DOI:10.1093/ntr/nts105 · 3.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Both intra-uterine exposure to maternal drugs and HIV are known to adversely affect the developing central nervous system. AIMS: (1) To describe the quality of GMs in infants who were intra-uterinely exposed to maternal opiate abuse and HIV; and (2) to analyze to what extent (a) perinatal events, (b) status of HIV-infection, and (c) the quality of GMs are associated with the neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 to 3years of age. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Seventy-seven children intra-uterinely exposed to both maternal opiate abuse and HIV in utero (41 boys and 36 girls; 39 born preterm) were videoed twice: first during the first 2months after term (writhing GMs) and again at 3-5months (fidgety GMs). Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed at 2-3years of age. RESULTS: Thirty-eight infants showed abnormal writhing GMs; 25 infants had abnormal or absent fidgety movements; 22 children had an adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. The association between GM trajectories and outcome revealed a Cramer-V=0.75 (p<0.001). Those infants with active HIV-infection (n=10) did not differ from the 67 infants who were HIV-exposed but uninfected with respect to their GM quality or outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Serial assessment of GMs in infants who were intra-uterinely exposed to maternal opiates and to HIV can be utilized for early identification of infants at a higher risk for later deficits and needing early intervention.Early human development 03/2013; 89(4). DOI:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2013.02.004 · 1.79 Impact Factor
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