IL28B gene polymorphisms and viral kinetics in HIV/hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin

Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
AIDS (London, England) (Impact Factor: 5.55). 05/2011; 25(8):1025-33. DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283471cae
Source: PubMed


A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) upstream of the IL28B gene (rs12979860) predicts sustained virological response (SVR) to peginterferon-ribavirin therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients. There is scarce information regarding the influence of this IL28B SNP on early viral kinetics during therapy, particularly in patients coinfected with HIV, in whom treatment response is lower than in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-monoinfected patients.
We selected 196 HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals who had completed a course of peginterferon-ribavirin therapy, and a validated outcome for SVR. Association of IL28B SNPs with rapid, early and end-of-treatment virological responses [rapid virological response (RVR), early virological response (EVR) and end of treatment virological response, respectively] was assessed in univariate and multivariate analyses.
Rate of SVR in the study population was 54%. Frequency of the IL28B CC genotype was 44%. The distribution of HCV genotypes was as follows: HCV-1 57%, HCV-2 1%, HCV-3 30% and HCV-4 12%. Compared to CT/TT, the CC genotype was associated with significantly higher rates of all on-treatment viral outcomes, after adjusting for other predictors of viral response as serum HCV-RNA, HCV genotype and liver fibrosis staging. IL28B CC genotype kept its predictive power of SVR in patients who did not achieve RVR or cEVR. The association between IL28B SNP and viral kinetics and treatment outcomes was significant only for HCV genotypes 1 and 4.
IL28B CC genotype is a strong predictor of virological response to therapy in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. This effect is mediated by an increase in viral clearance during the first 12 weeks of treatment and is mainly seen in patients infected with HCV genotypes 1 and 4.

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Available from: Maria Eugenia Vispo, Oct 23, 2014
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    • "Co-infected patients with persistent low HCV RNA levels are typically infected with non-genotype 1 viruses and represent a small proportion (13.4%) of our population of HIV-HCV-co-infected subjects. However, when only baseline data are considered, the proportion of co-infected patients increased to 26.8%, a figure comparable to the 25% reported in the study by Rallon et al. [14] in a cohort of 196 co-infected patients. The association between HCV genotype 1 and the IL28B C allele with higher HCV RNA values is described in HIV-HCV-co-infected patients [11,15]; these findings demonstrated that no unintended selection bias occurred. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background HCV RNA viral load is an important predictor of sustained virological response and, recently, a significant correlation with liver fibrosis was described. We investigated on possible influence of clinical and viro-immunological variables on HCV viral load in HIV-HCV co-infected patients over a study time of three years (2009-2012). Methods We retrospectively enrolled 98 adult patients with a diagnosis of chronic HIV infection in 2009, a diagnosis of chronic HCV infection with a detectable plasma HCV RNA in 2009 and 2012, HCV therapy-naïve or with failed and stopped antiviral treatment before June 2008. The following variables were recorded: age, gender, HCV genotype, IL28B rs12979860 CC genotype, HCV treatment status, advanced liver fibrosis diagnosis, antiretroviral therapy, CD4+ cell count, HCV viral load, HIV RNA (plasma HIV-1 RNA levels were measured from blood samples every three months at least). The correlation was established using linear regression analysis, analysis of variance and Fisher’s exact test. Comparisons between groups were performed using Fisher’s exact test, the independent samples t-test and the t-test for paired data, as appropriate, for continuous variables. A mixed mode (ME) maximum likelihood linear regression model was constructed to evaluate the dependence of HCV viral load. Results HCV RNA levels did not change significantly from 2009 to 2012 (from 3924650 ± 5320177 IU/ml to 3085128 ± 3372347 IU/ml, p = 0.13); the CD4+ count increased significantly (from a mean of 576 to a mean of 654, p = 0.003). Using linear regression, a positive correlation was observed for HCV load and genotype 1 (p = 0.002), nonresponder status (p = 0.04) and with interleukin 28B CC allele (p = 0.05). Other studied covariates failed to reach a significant correlation. Conclusions The HCV RNA load, a known pretreatment predictor of response to antiviral therapy, was independent of the two main parameters of HIV disease, plasma HIV RNA and CD4 cell count, over an observation time of 3 years in patients with recovered or spontaneously maintained immunocompetence.
    AIDS Research and Therapy 02/2014; 11(1):21. DOI:10.1186/1742-6405-11-21 · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    • "The predictive value of IL28B polymorphisms has been extensively studied in patients with HCV mono-infection, but only seven eligible studies included patients with HIV/HCV co-infection [28,29,35,42,61,63,85]. After stratifying by type of infection, we found that in patients co-infected with HIV/HCV, the strength of association between rs12979860 and SVR was similar to that for patients with HCV mono-infection. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Since 2009, several studies have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the gene encoding for interleukin (IL)-28 (IL28B) that are strongly associated with spontaneous and treatment-induced hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance. Because this large amount of data includes some inconsistencies, we consider assessment of the global estimate for each SNP to be essential. Methods Relevant studies assessing IL28B polymorphisms associated with sustained virologic response (SVR) and spontaneous clearance (SC) were identified from a literature search of PubMed up to 9 July, 2012. Studies were eligible studies if they included patients infected with HCV or HCV/HIV, or assessed any SNP located within or near the IL28B gene, SVR data available under standard treatment, and/or SC data in patients with acute HCV infection. Pooled odds ratios were estimated by fixed or random effects models when appropriate. Variables such as HCV genotype, ethnicity, and type of co-infection were studied. Results Of 282 screened studies, 67 were selected for SVR and 10 for SC. In total, 20,163 patients were studied for SVR and 3,554 for SC. For SVR, we found that all SNPs showed strong associations in patients with HCV genotypes 1 and 4, whereas the pooled ORs were almost three times lower for genotypes 2 and 3 (rs12979860 and rs8099917). Regarding ethnicity, the SNP most associated with SVR was rs12979860 in white patients, whereas in East Asians it seemed to be rs8099917. The most studied SNP (rs12979860) showed similar results for patients co-infected with HCV/HIV, as for those infected with HCV only. Finally, rs12979860 and rs8099917 both appeared to be associated with SC. Conclusions IL28B polymorphisms influence both the outcome of interferon treatment and the natural clearance of HCV. However we did not identify a universal predictor SNP, as the best genetic markers differed depending on patient ethnicity, genotype, and type of infection. Nevertheless, our results may be useful for more precise treatment decision-making.
    BMC Medicine 01/2013; 11(1):6. DOI:10.1186/1741-7015-11-6 · 7.25 Impact Factor
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    • "The most important prognostic factors associated with SVR among HIV/HCV co-infected patients treated with Peg-IFN-α plus ribavirin are similar to those observed in patients with HCV mono-infection (Fried et al., 2002). New data suggest that, like in HCV mono-infected patients , rs12979860 and rs8099917 IL28B polymorphisms play an important role in predicting SVR in this population , particularly in patients with genotype 1 HCV infection (Rallón et al., 2011). There are other factors specific for HIV/HCV coinfected patients which can influence the results of the treatment with Peg-IFN-α and ribavirin. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health problem which can lead to liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma in one-fifth of chronically infected patients. Materials and methods: The study group consisted of 123 patients: 90 with HCV mono- and 33 with HIV/HCV co-infection, who were treated with pegylated interferon alfa (Peg-IFN-α) and ribavirin. We analyzed selected pretreatment factors: age, sex, HIV/HCV co-infection, grade of inflammation, necrotic changes and fibrosis in histological analysis of liver bioptates, HCV viral load, HCV genotypes, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL28B and tried to find out which of them influence sustained virological response (SVR). The IL28B SNP C/T (rs12979860) was analyzed using Custom(®) SNP Genotyping Assays (Applied Biosystems). Results: Multivariate analysis demonstrated that after adjusting for the other variables three predictors independently influence SVR, namely genotype 3 of HCV, presence of the CC genotype and age >40 years (OR respectively 15.14, 3.62, and 0.36). HCV mono-infected patients were infected with HCV genotype 3 or 4 less frequently (p=0.0001) compared to HIV/HCV co-infected individuals. In patients with HIV/HCV co-infection the CC variant occurred more frequently whereas CT was found less frequently (p=0.001, p=0.0146, respectively). In patients with HIV/HCV co-infection, 3 and 4 genotype of HCV occurred more frequently compared to patients with HCV mono-infection (p=0.0001). Conclusions: These data suggest that age, HCV genotype and IL28B polymorphism are useful for prediction of the response to treatment with Peg-IFN-α and ribavirin. The more frequent occurrence of HCV genotypes 3 or 4 in patients with HIV/HCV co-infection could be associated with the route of transmission.
    Acta biochimica Polonica 08/2012; 59(3):333-7. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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