Toxicogenomics of nevirapine-associated cutaneous and hepatic adverse events among populations of African, Asian, and European descent

Non-Clinical Drug Safety, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc., Ridgefield, Connecticut 06877, USA.
AIDS (London, England) (Impact Factor: 6.56). 06/2011; 25(10):1271-80. DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32834779df
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Nevirapine is widely prescribed for HIV-1 infection. We characterized relationships between nevirapine-associated cutaneous and hepatic adverse events and genetic variants among HIV-infected adults.
We retrospectively identified cases and controls. Cases experienced symptomatic nevirapine-associated severe (grade III/IV) cutaneous and/or hepatic adverse events within 8 weeks of initiating nevirapine. Controls did not experience adverse events during more than 18 weeks of nevirapine therapy.
Cases and controls were matched 1: 2 on baseline CD4 T-cell count, sex, and race. Individuals with 150 or less CD4 T cells/μl at baseline were excluded. We characterized 123 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and 2744 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and drug metabolism and transport genes.
We studied 276 evaluable cases (175 cutaneous adverse events, 101 hepatic adverse events) and 587 controls. Cutaneous adverse events were associated with CYP2B6 516G→T (OR 1.66, all), HLA-Cw*04 (OR 2.51, all), and HLA-B*35 (OR 3.47, Asians; 5.65, Thais). Risk for cutaneous adverse events was particularly high among Blacks with CYP2B6 516TT and HLA-Cw*04 (OR 18.90) and Asians with HLA-B*35 and HLA-Cw*04 (OR 18.34). Hepatic adverse events were associated with HLA-DRB*01 (OR 3.02, Whites), but not CYP2B6 genotypes. Associations differed by population, at least in part reflecting allele frequencies.
Among patients with at least 150 CD4 T cells/μl, polymorphisms in drug metabolism and immune response pathways were associated with greater likelihood of risk for nevirapine-related adverse events. Results suggest fundamentally different mechanisms of adverse events: cutaneous, most likely MHC class I-mediated, influenced by nevirapine CYP2B6 metabolism; hepatic, most likely MHC class II-mediated and unaffected by such metabolism. These risk variants are insensitive for routine clinical screening.


Available from: David B Hall, Jun 15, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background. Phenome-Wide Association Studies (PheWAS) identify genetic associations across multiple phenotypes. Clinical trials offer opportunities for PheWAS to identify pharmacogenomic associations. We describe the first PheWAS to use genome-wide genotypic data and to utilize human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinical trials data. As proof-of-concept, we focused on baseline laboratory phenotypes from antiretroviral therapy-naive individuals. Methods. Data from 4 AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) studies were split into 2 datasets: Dataset I (1181 individuals from protocol A5202) and Dataset II (1366 from protocols A5095, ACTG 384, and A5142). Final analyses involved 2547 individuals and 5 954 294 imputed polymorphisms. We calculated comprehensive associations between these polymorphisms and 27 baseline laboratory phenotypes. Results. A total of 10 584 (0.17%) polymorphisms had associations with P < .01 in both datasets and with the same direction of association. Twenty polymorphisms replicated associations with identical or related phenotypes reported in the Catalog of Published Genome-Wide Association Studies, including several not previously reported in HIV-positive cohorts. We also identified several possibly novel associations. Conclusions. These analyses define PheWAS properties and principles with baseline laboratory data from HIV clinical trials. This approach may be useful for evaluating on-treatment HIV clinical trials data for associations with various clinical phenotypes.
    01/2014; 2(1):ofu113-ofu113. DOI:10.1093/ofid/ofu113
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite its efficacy, including in the prevention of vertical transmission, the antiretroviral nevirapine is associated with severe idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity and skin rash. The mechanisms underlying nevirapine toxicity are not fully understood, but drug bioactivation to reactive metabolites capable of forming stable protein adducts is thought to be involved. This hypothesis is based on the paradigm that drug reactive metabolites have the potential to bind to self-proteins, which results in drug-modified proteins being perceived as foreign by the immune system. The aim of the present work was to identify hemoglobin adducts in HIV patients as biomarkers of nevirapine haptenation upon bioactivation. The ultimate goal is to develop diagnostic methods for predicting the onset of nevirapine-induced toxic reactions. All included subjects were adults on nevirapine-containing antiretroviral therapy for at least 1month. The protocol received prior approval from the Hospital Ethics Committees and patients gave their written informed consent. Nevirapine-derived adducts with the N-terminal valine of hemoglobin were analyzed by an established liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method and characterized on the basis of retention time and mass spectrometric fragmentation pattern by comparison with adduct standards prepared synthetically. The nevirapine adducts were detected in 12/13 patient samples, and quantified in 11/12 samples (2.58±0.8 fmol/g of hemoglobin). This work represents the first evidence of nevirapine-protein adduct formation in man and confirms the ability of nevirapine to modify self-proteins, thus providing clues to the molecular mechanisms underlying nevirapine toxicity. Moreover, the possibility of assessing nevirapine-protein adduct levels has the potential to become useful for predicting the onset of nevirapine-induced adverse reactions.
    Toxicology 06/2012; 301(1-3):33-9. DOI:10.1016/j.tox.2012.06.013 · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To summarize current knowledge and provide perspective on relationships between human genetic variants, antiretroviral medications, and aging-related complications of HIV-1 infection. Human genetic variants have been convincingly associated with interindividual variability in antiretroviral toxicities, drug disposition, and aging-associated complications in HIV-1 infection. Screening for HLA-B5701 to avoid abacavir hypersensitivity reactions has become a routine part of clinical care, and has markedly improved drug safety. There are well established pharmacogenetic associations with other agents (efavirenz, nevirapine, atazanavir, dolutegravir, and others), but this knowledge has yet to have substantial impact on HIV-1 clinical care. As metabolic complications including diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease are becoming an increasing concern among individuals who are aging with well controlled HIV-1 infection, human genetic variants that predispose to these complications also become more relevant in this population. Pharmacogenetic knowledge has already had considerable impact on antiretroviral prescribing. With continued advances in the field of human genomics, the impact of pharmacogenomics on HIV-1 clinical care and research is likely to continue to grow in importance and scope.
    Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS 01/2015; 10(2). DOI:10.1097/COH.0000000000000134 · 4.39 Impact Factor