Periostin identified as a potential biomarker of prostate cancer by iTRAQ-proteomics analysis of prostate biopsy

Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, FudanUniversity, Shanghai, 200040, China. .
Proteome Science (Impact Factor: 1.73). 04/2011; 9(1):22. DOI: 10.1186/1477-5956-9-22
Source: PubMed


Proteomics may help us better understand the changes of multiple proteins involved in oncogenesis and progression of prostate cancer(PCa) and identify more diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. The aim of this study was to screen biomarkers of PCa by the proteomics analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification(iTRAQ).
The patients undergoing prostate biopsies were classified into 3 groups according to pathological results: benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH, n = 20), PCa(n = 20) and BPH with local prostatic intraepithelial neoplasm(PIN, n = 10). Then, all the specimens from these patients were analyzed by iTRAQ and two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2DLC-MS/MS). The Gene Ontology(GO) function and the transcription regulation networks of the differentially expressed were analyzed by MetaCore software. Western blotting and Immunohistochemical staining were used to analyze the interesting proteins.
A total of 760 proteins were identified from 13787 distinct peptides, including two common proteins that enjoy clinical application: prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase(PAP). Proteins that expressed differentially between PCa and BPH group were further analyzed. Compared with BPH, 20 proteins were significantly differentially up-regulated (>1.5-fold) while 26 were significantly down-regulated in PCa(<0.66-fold). In term of GO database, the differentially expressed proteins were divided into 3 categories: cellular component(CC), molecular function (MF) and biological process(BP). The top 5 transcription regulation networks of the differentially expressed proteins were initiated through activation of SP1, p53, YY1, androgen receptor(AR) and c-Myc The overexpression of periostin in PCa was verified by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining.
Our study indicates that the iTRAQ technology is a new strategy for global proteomics analysis of the tissues of PCa. A significant up-regulation of periostin in PCa compared to BPH may provide clues for not only a promising biomarker for the prognosis of PCa but also a potential target for therapeutical intervention.

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    • "After protein reduction and alkylation followed by overnight digestion with trypsin, the peptides were labeled with the iTRAQ regents for 1 h at room temperature according to the kit protocol (Applied Biosystems, USA). The iTRAQ regents were used to label the peptides as follows: iTRAQ tag 113, control-1; 114, control-2; 115, control-3; 116, control-4; 117, patient-1; 118, patient-2; 119, patient-3; 121, patient-4 [11]–[13]. The samples were then pooled and fractionated by strong cation exchange (SCX), using a BioLC HPLC column (Dionex, Surrey, UK), and analyzed by LC-MS/MS as previously described [15], [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pre-eclampsia (PE), a severe pregnancy-specific disease characterized by the new onset of hypertension, proteinuria, edema, and a series of other systematic disorders, is a state of widespread mitochondrial dysfunction of the placenta. We compared the morphology of mitochondria in pre-eclamptic and normotensive placentae using electron microscopy. To reveal the systematic protein expression changes of placental mitochondria that might explain the pathogenesis of PE, we performed iTRAQ analysis combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) on differentially expressed placental mitochondria proteins from 4 normotensive and 4 pre-eclamptic pregnancies. Bioinformatics analysis was used to find the relative processes that these differentially expressed proteins were involved in. Three differentially expressed proteins were chosen to confirm by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Morphological data demonstrated degenerative and apoptotic changes in the mitochondria of pre-eclamptic placentae. We found four proteins were upregulated and 22 proteins were downregulated in pre-eclamptic placentae compared with normotensive placentae. Bioinformatics analysis showed that these proteins were involved in many critical processes in the development of pre-eclampsia such as apoptosis, fatty acid oxidation, the respiratory chain, reactive oxygen species generation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative stress. This preliminary work provides a better understanding of the proteomic alterations of mitochondria from pre-eclamptic placentae and may aid in our understanding of the importance of mitochondria in the development of pre-eclampsia.
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    • "Generation of inducible YY1 KO ES cells will therefore be an invaluable tool to extend these observations. Importantly, in addition to the essential function in regulating normal development and differentiation, YY1 and Myc are both activated in NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis (75), as well as in Burkitt Lymphomas (76) and in prostate cancers (77). Interestingly, YY1 and Zfx were identified out of six proteins that scored in a proteomic study aimed to identify proteins expressed in neoplastic nodes of diffuse large B cell and Follicular lymphomas (78), two tumor types that are frequently driven by Myc amplifications and overexpression (24). "
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    ABSTRACT: The Yin Yang 1 (YY1) transcription factor is a master regulator of development, essential for early embryogenesis and adult tissues formation. YY1 is the mammalian orthologue of Pleiohomeotic, one of the transcription factors that binds Polycomb DNA response elements in Drosophila melanogaster and mediates Polycomb group proteins (PcG) recruitment to DNA. Despite several publications pointing at YY1 having a similar role in mammalians, others showed features of YY1 that are not compatible with PcG functions. Here, we show that, in mouse Embryonic Stem (ES) cells, YY1 has genome-wide PcG-independent activities while it is still stably associated with the INO80 chromatin-remodeling complex, as well as with novel RNA helicase activities. YY1 binds chromatin in close proximity of the transcription start site of highly expressed genes. Loss of YY1 functions preferentially led to a down-regulation of target genes expression, as well as to an up-regulation of several small non-coding RNAs, suggesting a role for YY1 in regulating small RNA biogenesis. Finally, we found that YY1 is a novel player of Myc-related transcription factors and that its coordinated binding at promoters potentiates gene expression, proposing YY1 as an active component of the Myc transcription network that links ES to cancer cells.
    Nucleic Acids Research 12/2011; 40(8):3403-18. DOI:10.1093/nar/gkr1290 · 9.11 Impact Factor
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    • "Periostin was identified as a differential expressed protein of PCa compared to BPH and then the overexpression of Periostin in PCa was verificated by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. The above processes have been reported by our group[21]. The details on the identification and verification of Periostin have been provided in the additional materials. "
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    ABSTRACT: In our recent study, Periostin was up-regulated in prostate cancer(PCa) compared with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) by proteomics analysis of prostate biopsies. We investigated the effect of sliencing Periostin by RNA interference (RNAi) on the proliferation and migration of PCa LNCap cell line. All the prostate biopsies from PCa, BPH and BPH with local prostatic intraepithelial neoplasm(PIN) were analyzed by iTRAQ(Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) technology. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining were used to verify Periostin expression in the tissues of PCa. Periostin expression in different PCa cell lines was determined by immunofluorescence staining, western blotting and reverse transcription PCR(RT-PCR). The LNCap cells with Periostin expression were used for transfecting shRNA-Periostin lentiviral particles. The efficancy of transfecting shRNA lentiviral particles was evaluated by immunofluorescence, western blotting and Real-time PCR. The effect of silencing Periostin expression by RNAi on proliferation of LNCap cells was determined by MTT assay and tumor xenografts. The tissue slices from theses xenografts were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining. The expression of Periostin in the xenografts was deteminned by Immunohistochemical staining and western blotting. The migration of LNCap cells after silencing Periostin gene expression were analyzed in vitro. Periostin as the protein of interest was shown 9.12 fold up-regulation in PCa compared with BPH. The overexpression of Periostin in the stroma of PCa was confirmed by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. Periostin was only expressed in PCa LNCap cell line. Our results indicated that the transfection ratio was more than 90%. As was expected, both the protein level and mRNA level of Periostin in the stably expressing shRNA-Periostin LNCap cells were significantly reduced. The stably expressing shRNA-Periostin LNCap cells growed slowly in vitro and in vivo. The tissues of xenografts as PCa were verificated by HE staining. Additionally, the weak positive Periostin expressed tumor cells could be seen in the tissues of 6 xenografts from the group of down-regulated Periostin LNCap cells which had a significant decrease of the amount of Periostin compared to the other two group. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that sliencing Periostin could inhibit migration of LNCap cells in vitro. Our data indicates that Periostin as an up-regulated protein in PCa may be a promising target of therapeutical intervention for PCa in future.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 06/2011; 9(1):99. DOI:10.1186/1479-5876-9-99 · 3.93 Impact Factor
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