Positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), the complex of Cyclin T1 and CDK9, activates the transcription of many viral and eukaryotic genes at the point of mRNA elongation. The activity of P-TEFb has been implicated in the differentiation of a number of cell types, including skeletal muscle. In order to promote transcription, P-TEFb hyperphosphorylates RNA Pol II, thereby increasing its processivity. Our previous work identified histone H1 as a P-TEFb substrate during HIV-1 and immediate-early transcription. Here, we examine the role of P-TEFb phosphorylation of histone H1 during differentiation, using the myoblast cell line C2C12 as a model for skeletal muscle differentiation. We found that H1 phosphorylation is elevated in differentiating C2C12, and this phosphorylation is sensitive to P-TEFb inhibition. H1 phosphorylation was also necessary for the induction of three muscle marker genes that require P-TEFb for expression. Additionally, ChIP experiments demonstrate that H1 dissociates from muscle differentiation marker genes in C2C12 cells under active P-TEFb conditions. We determine that both P-TEFb activity and H1 phosphorylation are necessary for the full differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the etiological agent of AIDS. Chronic persistent infection is an important reason for the presence of "latent cell populations" even after Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART). We have analyzed the effect of ATP analogs in inhibiting cdk9/T1 complex in infected cells. A third generation drug named CR8#13 is an effective inhibitor of Tat activated transcription. Following drug treatment, we observed a decreased loading of cdk9 onto the HIV-1 DNA. We found multiple novel cdk9/T1 complexes present in infected and uninfected cells with one complex being unique to infected cells. This complex is sensitive to CR8#13 in kinase assays. Treatment of PBMC with CR8#13 does not kill infected cells as compared to Flavopiridol. Interestingly, there is a difference in sensitivity of various clades to these analogs. Collectively, these results point to targeting novel complexes for inhibition of cellular proteins that are unique to infected cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nucleus is the organelle where basically all DNA-related processes take place in eukaryotes such as replication, transcription and splicing as well as epigenetic regulation. The identification and description of the nuclear proteins is one of the requisites towards a comprehensive understanding of the biological functions accomplished in the nucleus. Many of the regulatory mechanisms of protein functions rely on their post-translational modifications amongst which phosphorylation is probably one of the most important properties affecting enzymatic activity, interaction with other molecules, localization or stability. So far, the nuclear and subnuclear proteome and phosphoproteome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana were the objects of very few studies. In this work, we developed a purification protocol of Arabidopsis chromatin-associated proteins and performed proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses identifying a total of 879 proteins of which 198 were phosphoproteins that were mainly involved in chromatin remodeling, transcriptional regulation and RNA processing. From 230 precisely localized phosphorylation sites (phosphosites), 52 correspond to hitherto unidentified sites. This protocol and data thereby obtained should be a valuable resource for many domains of plant research.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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