Another look at the interaction between mitochondrial cytochrome c and flavocytochrome b 2

Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, Université Paris-Sud, Orsay Cedex, France.
Biophysics of Structure and Mechanism (Impact Factor: 2.22). 04/2011; 40(12):1283-99. DOI: 10.1007/s00249-011-0697-0
Source: PubMed


Yeast flavocytochrome b (2) tranfers reducing equivalents from lactate to oxygen via cytochrome c and cytochrome c oxidase. The enzyme catalytic cycle includes FMN reduction by lactate and reoxidation by intramolecular electron transfer to heme b (2). Each subunit of the soluble tetrameric enzyme consists of an N terminal b (5)-like heme-binding domain and a C terminal flavodehydrogenase. In the crystal structure, FMN and heme are face to face, and appear to be in a suitable orientation and at a suitable distance for exchanging electrons. But in one subunit out of two, the heme domain is disordered and invisible. This raises a central question: is this mobility required for interaction with the physiological acceptor cytochrome c, which only receives electrons from the heme and not from the FMN? The present review summarizes the results of the variety of methods used over the years that shed light on the interactions between the flavin and heme domains and between the enzyme and cytochrome c. The conclusion is that one should consider the interaction between the flavin and heme domains as a transient one, and that the cytochrome c and the flavin domain docking areas on the heme b (2) domain must overlap at least in part. The heme domain mobility is an essential component of the flavocytochrome b (2) functioning. In this respect, the enzyme bears similarity to a variety of redox enzyme systems, in particular those in which a cytochrome b (5)-like domain is fused to proteins carrying other redox functions.

Download full-text


Available from: Florence Lederer, Aug 12, 2014
34 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lying at the heart of many vital cellular processes such as photosynthesis and respiration, biological electron transfer (ET) is mediated by transient interactions among proteins that recognize multiple binding partners. Accurate description of the ET complexes - necessary for a comprehensive understanding of the cellular signaling and metabolism - is compounded by their short lifetimes and pronounced binding promiscuity. Here, we used a computational approach relying solely on the steric properties of the individual proteins to predict the ET properties of protein complexes constituting the functional interactome of the eukaryotic cytochrome c (Cc). Cc is a small, soluble, highly-conserved electron carrier protein that coordinates the electron flow among different redox partners. In eukaryotes, Cc is a key component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, where it shuttles electrons between its reductase and oxidase, and an essential electron donor or acceptor in a number of other redox systems. Starting from the structures of individual proteins, we performed extensive conformational sampling of the ET-competent binding geometries, which allowed mapping out functional epitopes in the Cc complexes, estimating the upper limit of the ET rate in a given system, assessing ET properties of different binding stoichiometries, and gauging the effect of domain mobility on the intermolecular ET. The resulting picture of the Cc interactome 1) reveals that most ET-competent binding geometries are located in electrostatically favorable regions, 2) indicates that the ET can take place from more than one protein-protein orientation, and 3) suggests that protein dynamics within redox complexes, and not the electron tunneling event itself, is the rate-limiting step in the intermolecular ET. Further, we show that the functional epitope size correlates with the extent of dynamics in the Cc complexes and thus can be used as a diagnostic tool for protein mobility.
    PLoS Computational Biology 12/2012; 8(12):e1002807. DOI:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002807 · 4.62 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lactate utilization endows microbes with the ability to use lactate as a carbon source. Lactate oxidizing enzymes play key roles in the lactate utilization pathway. Various types of these enzymes have been characterized, but novel ones remain to be identified. Lactate determination techniques and biocatalysts have been developed based on these enzymes. Lactate utilization has also been found to induce pathogenicity of several microbes, and the mechanisms have been investigated. More recently, studies on the structure and organization of operons of lactate utilization have been carried out. This review focuses on the recent progress and future perspectives in understanding microbial lactate utilization.
    Trends in Microbiology 06/2014; 22(10). DOI:10.1016/j.tim.2014.05.008 · 9.19 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A new paradigm for cellulose depolymerization by fungi focuses on an oxidative mechanism involving cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDH) and copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO); however, mechanistic studies have been hampered by the lack of structural information regarding CDH. CDH contains a haem-binding cytochrome (CYT) connected via a flexible linker to a flavin-dependent dehydrogenase (DH). Electrons are generated from cellobiose oxidation catalysed by DH and shuttled via CYT to LPMO. Here we present structural analyses that provide a comprehensive picture of CDH conformers, which govern the electron transfer between redox centres. Using structure-based site-directed mutagenesis, rapid kinetics analysis and molecular docking, we demonstrate that flavin-to-haem interdomain electron transfer (IET) is enabled by a haem propionate group and that rapid IET requires a closed CDH state in which the propionate is tightly enfolded by DH. Following haem reduction, CYT reduces LPMO to initiate oxygen activation at the copper centre and subsequent cellulose depolymerization.
    Nature Communications 07/2015; 6:7542. DOI:10.1038/ncomms8542 · 11.47 Impact Factor