Neuroepithelial stem cell marker nestin regulates the migration, invasion and growth of human gliomas.
ABSTRACT Nestin, a class VI intermediate filament protein, was originally described as a neuronal stem cell marker during central nervous system development. Nestin is expressed in gliomas, and its expression levels are higher in gliomas with high WHO histopathological classification grades than in those with low grades. In the present study, we examined whether nestin regulates the biological activities of human glioma cells. Immunohistochemically, the nestin expression patterns in 10 human glioblastoma patients were examined. The expression levels of nestin in A172, a human high-grade glioma cell line, and KG-1-C, a human low-grade glioma cell line, were examined using real-time PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. An expression vector carrying a short hairpin RNA targeting nestin was stably transfected into A172 (Sh) cells. The effects of decreased expression levels of nestin in Sh cells on cell growth, migration, invasion, adhesion to extracellular matrices and fibrillar actin expression on three-dimensional culture plates were examined. The nestin expression vector was transiently transfected into KG-1-C (Nes) cells, and the effects of the nestin overexpression on cell growth and migration were examined. Nestin was expressed in the cytoplasm of the glioblastoma cells in all cases examined. Sh cells showed marked decreases in the expression levels of nestin mRNA and protein, and the growth rate of Sh cells was lower than that of sham (Sc) cells. In contrast, the adhesion activity of Sh cells to types I and IV collagens, fibronectin and laminin was higher than that of Sc cells. Fibrillar actin was clearly detected at the periphery of colonies of Sh cells at the attachment sites on three-dimensional culture plates. The migration and invasion of Sh cells were markedly inhibited compared with those of Sc cells. In contrast, the levels of nestin expression markedly increased in the Nes cells, which were transiently transfected with the nestin expression vector. The growth rate and motility of Nes cells were higher than those of the mock cells. In conclusion, nestin plays important roles in cell growth, migration, invasion and adhesion to extra-cellular matrices in glioma cells. Nestin may serve as a novel candidate for molecular-targeted therapy for gliomas, including glioblastomas.
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ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and lethal brain tumor in adults. Its invasive nature currently represents the most challenging hurdle to surgical resection. The mechanism adopted by GBM cells to carry out their invasive strategy is an intricate program that recalls what takes place in embryonic cells during development and in carcinoma cells during metastasis formation, the so-called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. GBM cells undergo a series of molecular and conformational changes shifting the tumor toward mesenchymal traits, including extracellular matrix remodeling, cytoskeletal re-patterning, and stem-like trait acquisition. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms driving the whole infiltrative process represents the first step toward successful treatment of this pathology. Here, we review recent findings demonstrating the invasive nature of GBM cancer stem cells, together with novel candidate molecules associated with both cancer stem cell biology and GBM invasion, like doublecortin and microRNAs. These findings may affect the design of effective therapies currently not considered for GBM invasive progression.Stem Cell Research & Therapy 02/2013; 4(1):18. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor of the central nervous system (CNS). As an attempt to identify drugs for GBM therapeutics, phenotypic assays were used to screen 3000 chemicals from a clinical compound library. GBM subtypes exhibited different capabilities to induce angiogenesis when cultured on Matrigel; proneural cells migrated and formed a tube-like structure without endothelial cells. Among the compounds screened, indatraline, a nonselective monoamine transporter inhibitor, suppressed these morphological changes; it dose dependently inhibited cell spreading, migration, and in vitro/in vivo tube formation. In addition to intracellular calcium concentration, indatraline increased the level of Rho GTPase and its activity. Moreover, indatraline downregulated angiogenesis-related genes such as IGFBP2, PTN, VEGFA, PDGFRA, and VEGFR as well as nestin, a stem cell marker. These findings collectively suggest that the activation of Rho GTPase and the suppression of angiogenesis-related factors mediate the antiangiogenic activity of indatraline in proneural GBM culture.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2013; · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is associated with a high incidence of hepatic metastases, as well as occasional pulmonary metastases. To delineate the potential role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in PDAC metastasis, human PDAC cells were injected into the spleen of mice. The characteristics and expression of markers associated with CSC and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of metastatic cells that developed in the liver and lung were then compared with parental cells. The metastatic cells were polygonal, and larger than parental cells. Metastatic cells also exhibited decreased proliferation and increased adhesion to extracellular matrices, as well as enhanced migration and invasion in vitro and increased metastatic capacity in vivo. The CSC markers ALDH1A1, ABCG2, and nestin were expressed at high levels in metastatic cells and exhibited changes consistent with EMT (eg, decreased E-cadherin expression). Moreover, metastatic cells readily formed spheres in culture and exhibited an increased side population by flow analysis. Nestin and ABCG2 were also expressed at high levels in metastatic lesions from PDAC patients, and silencing nestin with shRNA in PDAC cells derived from lung metastases resulted in a marked decrease in the capacity of the cells to form spheres and to yield pulmonary or hepatic metastases. Thus, the metastatic potential of human PDAC cells correlates with CSCs and with EMT characteristics and is dependent on nestin expression.American Journal Of Pathology 01/2014; · 4.52 Impact Factor