Neuroepithelial stem cell marker nestin regulates the migration, invasion and growth of human gliomas.
ABSTRACT Nestin, a class VI intermediate filament protein, was originally described as a neuronal stem cell marker during central nervous system development. Nestin is expressed in gliomas, and its expression levels are higher in gliomas with high WHO histopathological classification grades than in those with low grades. In the present study, we examined whether nestin regulates the biological activities of human glioma cells. Immunohistochemically, the nestin expression patterns in 10 human glioblastoma patients were examined. The expression levels of nestin in A172, a human high-grade glioma cell line, and KG-1-C, a human low-grade glioma cell line, were examined using real-time PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. An expression vector carrying a short hairpin RNA targeting nestin was stably transfected into A172 (Sh) cells. The effects of decreased expression levels of nestin in Sh cells on cell growth, migration, invasion, adhesion to extracellular matrices and fibrillar actin expression on three-dimensional culture plates were examined. The nestin expression vector was transiently transfected into KG-1-C (Nes) cells, and the effects of the nestin overexpression on cell growth and migration were examined. Nestin was expressed in the cytoplasm of the glioblastoma cells in all cases examined. Sh cells showed marked decreases in the expression levels of nestin mRNA and protein, and the growth rate of Sh cells was lower than that of sham (Sc) cells. In contrast, the adhesion activity of Sh cells to types I and IV collagens, fibronectin and laminin was higher than that of Sc cells. Fibrillar actin was clearly detected at the periphery of colonies of Sh cells at the attachment sites on three-dimensional culture plates. The migration and invasion of Sh cells were markedly inhibited compared with those of Sc cells. In contrast, the levels of nestin expression markedly increased in the Nes cells, which were transiently transfected with the nestin expression vector. The growth rate and motility of Nes cells were higher than those of the mock cells. In conclusion, nestin plays important roles in cell growth, migration, invasion and adhesion to extra-cellular matrices in glioma cells. Nestin may serve as a novel candidate for molecular-targeted therapy for gliomas, including glioblastomas.
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ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor of the central nervous system (CNS). As an attempt to identify drugs for GBM therapeutics, phenotypic assays were used to screen 3000 chemicals from a clinical compound library. GBM subtypes exhibited different capabilities to induce angiogenesis when cultured on Matrigel; proneural cells migrated and formed a tube-like structure without endothelial cells. Among the compounds screened, indatraline, a nonselective monoamine transporter inhibitor, suppressed these morphological changes; it dose dependently inhibited cell spreading, migration, and in vitro/in vivo tube formation. In addition to intracellular calcium concentration, indatraline increased the level of Rho GTPase and its activity. Moreover, indatraline downregulated angiogenesis-related genes such as IGFBP2, PTN, VEGFA, PDGFRA, and VEGFR as well as nestin, a stem cell marker. These findings collectively suggest that the activation of Rho GTPase and the suppression of angiogenesis-related factors mediate the antiangiogenic activity of indatraline in proneural GBM culture.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2013; · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is associated with a high incidence of hepatic metastases, as well as occasional pulmonary metastases. To delineate the potential role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in PDAC metastasis, human PDAC cells were injected into the spleen of mice. The characteristics and expression of markers associated with CSC and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of metastatic cells that developed in the liver and lung were then compared with parental cells. The metastatic cells were polygonal, and larger than parental cells. Metastatic cells also exhibited decreased proliferation and increased adhesion to extracellular matrices, as well as enhanced migration and invasion in vitro and increased metastatic capacity in vivo. The CSC markers ALDH1A1, ABCG2, and nestin were expressed at high levels in metastatic cells and exhibited changes consistent with EMT (eg, decreased E-cadherin expression). Moreover, metastatic cells readily formed spheres in culture and exhibited an increased side population by flow analysis. Nestin and ABCG2 were also expressed at high levels in metastatic lesions from PDAC patients, and silencing nestin with shRNA in PDAC cells derived from lung metastases resulted in a marked decrease in the capacity of the cells to form spheres and to yield pulmonary or hepatic metastases. Thus, the metastatic potential of human PDAC cells correlates with CSCs and with EMT characteristics and is dependent on nestin expression.American Journal Of Pathology 01/2014; · 4.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glioblastomas are the most lethal primary brain tumor that frequently relapse or progress as focal masses after radiation, suggesting that a fraction of tumor cells are responsible for the tumor regrowth. The identification of a brain tumor cell subpopulation with potent tumorigenic activity supports the cancer stem cell hypothesis in solid tumors. The goal of this study is to determine a methodology for the establishment of primary human glioblastoma cell lines. Our aim is achieved by taking the following approaches: (i) the establishment of primary glioblastoma cell culture; (ii) isolation of neurospheres derived from glioblastoma primary cultures; (iii) selection of CD133 cells from neurospheres, (iv) formation of subspheres in the CD133-positive population, (v) study of the expression level of GFAP, CD133, Nestin, Nanog, CD34, Sox2, CD44, and CD90 markers on tumor subspheres. Hence, we described a successful method for isolation of CD133-positive cell population and establishment of glioblastoma neurospheres from this primary culture, which are more robust than the ones derived straight from the tumor. Pointed out that the neurospheres derived from glioblastoma primary culture showed 29% more cells expressing CD133 then the ones straight tumor-derived, denoting a higher concentration of CD133-positive cells in the neurospheres derived from glioblastoma primary culture. These CD133-positive fractions were able to further generate subspheres. The subspheres derived from glioblastoma primary culture presented a well-defined morphology while the ones derived from the fresh tumor were sparce and less robust. And the negative fraction of CD133 cells was unable to generate subspheres. The tumor subspheres expressed GFAP, CD133, Nestin, Nanog, CD44, and CD90. Also, the present study describes an optimization of neurospheres/subspheres isolation from glioblastoma primary culture by selection of CD133-positive adherent stem cell.Frontiers in Neurology 01/2014; 4:214.