Persell SD. Prevalence of resistant hypertension in the United States, 2003-2008

Division of General Internal Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 750 N Lake Shore Dr, 10th Floor, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.
Hypertension (Impact Factor: 6.48). 06/2011; 57(6):1076-80. DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.170308
Source: PubMed


The prevalence of resistant hypertension is unknown. Much previous knowledge comes from referral populations or clinical trial participants. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2003 through 2008, nonpregnant adults with hypertension were classified as resistant if their blood pressure was ≥140/90 mm Hg and they reported using antihypertensive medications from 3 different drug classes or drugs from ≥4 antihypertensive drug classes regardless of blood pressure. Among US adults with hypertension, 8.9% (SE: 0.6%) met criteria for resistant hypertension. This represented 12.8% (SE: 0.9%) of the antihypertensive drug-treated population. Of all drug-treated adults whose hypertension was uncontrolled, 72.4% (SE: 1.6%) were taking drugs from <3 classes. Compared with those with controlled hypertension using 1 to 3 medication classes, adults with resistant hypertension were more likely to be older, to be non-Hispanic black, and to have higher body mass index (all P<0.001). They were more likely to have albuminuria, reduced renal function, and self-reported medical histories of coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and diabetes mellitus (P<0.001). Most (85.6% [SE: 2.4%]) individuals with resistant hypertension used a diuretic. Of this group, 64.4% (SE: 3.2%) used the relatively weak thiazide diuretic hydrochlorothiazide. Although not rare, resistant hypertension is currently found in only a modest proportion of the hypertensive population. Among those classified here as resistant, inadequate diuretic therapy may be a modifiable therapeutic target. Cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and renal dysfunction were all common in this population.

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    • "Approximately 1 billion adults have SH and this figure is estimated to reach 1.5 billion in 20251. In addition, approximately 12.8% of patients have resistant SH2. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Systemic hypertension is an important public health problem and a significant cause of cardiovascular mortality. Its high prevalence and the low rates of blood pressure control have resulted in the search for alternative therapeutic strategies. Percutaneous renal sympathetic denervation emerged as a perspective in the treatment of patients with resistant hypertension. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of renal denervation using an irrigated catheter. Methods: Ten patients with resistant hypertension underwent the procedure. The primary endpoint was safety, as assessed by periprocedural adverse events, renal function and renal vascular abnormalities at 6 months. The secondary endpoints were changes in blood pressure levels (office and ambulatory monitoring) and in the number of antihypertensive drugs at 6 months. Results: The mean age was 47.3 (± 12) years, and 90% of patients were women. In the first case, renal artery dissection occurred as a result of trauma due to the long sheath; no further cases were observed after technical adjustments, thus showing an effect of the learning curve. No cases of thrombosis/renal infarction or death were reported. Elevation of serum creatinine levels was not observed during follow-up. At 6 months, one case of significant renal artery stenosis with no clinical consequences was diagnosed. Renal denervation reduced office blood pressure levels by 14.6/6.6 mmHg, on average (p = 0.4 both for systolic and diastolic blood pressure). Blood pressure levels on ambulatory monitoring decreased by 28/17.6 mmHg (p = 0.02 and p = 0.07 for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively). A mean reduction of 2.1 antihypertensive drugs was observed. Conclusion: Renal denervation is feasible and safe in the treatment of resistant systemic arterial hypertension. Larger studies are required to confirm our findings.
    Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 02/2014; DOI:10.5935/abc.20140034 · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    • "Resistant hypertension (RH) is defined when a patient taking three or more antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic, at optimal tolerated doses, and still maintains BP values >140/90 mmHg [4] [5]. Prevalence of RH is not well established but some statistics reveal that it represents 13% of hypertensive patients [6]. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey among United States adults reveal the criteria for RH which were found in 8.9% of hypertensive patients [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Adequate blood pressure control represents an important goal for all physicians due to the complications of hypertension which reduce patients' quality of life. A new interventional strategy to reduce blood pressure has been developed for patients with resistant hypertension. Catheter-based renal denervation has demonstrated excellent results in recent investigations associated with few side effects. With the growing diffusion of this technique worldwide, some medical societies have published consensus statements to guide physicians how to best apply this procedure. Questions remain to be answered such as the long-term durability of renal denervation, the efficacy in patients with other sympathetically mediated diseases, and whether renal denervation would benefit patients with stage 1 hypertension.
    International Journal of Hypertension 11/2013; 2013:513214. DOI:10.1155/2013/513214
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    • "Among participants on antihypertensive medications, 28% were not in optimal control, and 12.8% were defined as resistant (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg despite ≥three antihypertensives) to medications.58 Prevalence of resistance however was reduced to 7.3%, if the requirement was for ≥four antihypertensive medications.59 Thus, prevalence was largely definition based. "
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    ABSTRACT: Research in resistant hypertension has again focused on autonomic nervous system denervation - 50 years after it had been stopped due to postural hypotension and availability of newer drugs. These (ganglionic blockers) drugs have all been similarly stopped, due to postural hypotension and yet newer antihypertensive agents. Recent demonstration of the feasibility of limited regional transcatheter sympathetic denervation has excited clinicians due to potential therapeutic implications. Standard use of ambulatory blood pressure recording equipment may alter our understanding of the diagnosis, potential treatment strategies, and health care outcomes - when faced with patients whose office blood pressure remains in the hypertensive range - while under treatment with three antihypertensive drugs at the highest tolerable doses, plus a diuretic. We review herein clinical relationships between autonomic function, resistant hypertension, current treatment strategies, and reflect upon the possibility of changes in our approach to resistant hypertension.
    International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease 08/2013; 6:149-160. DOI:10.2147/IJNRD.S40897
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