International phase III trial assessing neoadjuvant cisplatin, methotrexate, and vinblastine chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: long-term results of the BA06 30894 trial.

Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit, London, United Kingdom.
Journal of Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 17.88). 06/2011; 29(16):2171-7. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2010.32.3139
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This article presents the long-term results of the international multicenter randomized trial that investigated the use of neoadjuvant cisplatin, methotrexate, and vinblastine (CMV) chemotherapy in patients with muscle-invasive urothelial cancer of the bladder treated by cystectomy and/or radiotherapy. Nine hundred seventy-six patients were recruited between 1989 and 1995, and median follow-up is now 8.0 years.
This was a randomized phase III trial of either no neoadjuvant chemotherapy or three cycles of CMV.
The previously reported possible survival advantage of CMV is now statistically significant at the 5% level. Results show a statistically significant 16% reduction in the risk of death (hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.99; P = .037, corresponding to an increase in 10-year survival from 30% to 36%) after CMV.
We conclude that CMV chemotherapy improves outcome as first-line adjunctive treatment for invasive bladder cancer. Two large randomized trials (by the Medical Research Council/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer and Southwest Oncology Group) have confirmed a statistically significant and clinically relevant survival benefit, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by definitive local therapy should be viewed as state of the art, as compared with cystectomy or radiotherapy alone, for deeply invasive bladder cancer.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Uptake of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC) for muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) has been low despite evidence of a survival benefit. The primary aim of this study was to better understand why the rates are low and determine what factors specifically influence the decision to recommend NC for MIBC. A 31-question survey was emailed between 2009 and 2011 to medical oncologists belonging to the Canadian Association of Genitourinary Medical Oncologists (CAGMO); and to urologists belonging to the Canadian Urologic Oncology Group (CUOG). We gathered data on practice characteristics, referrals for NC, factors influencing NC use, and chemotherapy regimens offered. Responses were summarized using descriptive statistics. In total, 26/30 (87%) medical oncologists and 25/84 (30%) urologists, who were primarily academic, completed the survey. Most clinicians (medical oncologists 96%, urologists 88%) recommended NC for MIBC, because they considered it to be the standard of care, but most medical oncologists saw ≤6 referrals annually. Performance status, presence of comorbidities and renal function were key considerations in offering NC. NC was not offered if performance status ≥2 (medical oncologists 38%, urologists 44%), age >80 (medical oncologists 46%, urologists 39%), or glomerular filtration rate ≤40 mL/min (medical oncologists 81%, urologists 50%). Most academic clinicians in Canada believe that cisplatin-based combination NC is the standard of care for MIBC and recommend it for patients with adequate performance status and renal function. Using a multidisciplinary approach to treat this disease may be one strategy to increase referral rates for NC and uptake of NC.
    10/2014; 8(9-10):309-316.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Increasing age is directly associated with an increasing risk of cancer, and persons over 65 constitute the fastest growing group in the United States. Not only do older adults comprise the majority of cancer patients, at the same time, they have also been vastly underrepresented in clinical trials. As a result, little evidence-based data exist to guide their course of treatment. Alternative trial designs and expanded research evaluations are needed to guide cancer therapy in this population, which is estimated to account for 20% of all Americans by the year 2030. In this review, after examining the status quo, we propose ways to correct the widespread underreporting and underrepresentation of older adults in cancer trials, and highlight existing barriers to trial enrollment. We also outline specific issues of treatment and survivorship as they pertain to older adults, including function, clinical benefit, quality of life, polypharmacy, toxicity, and comorbidity.
    Journal of Geriatric Oncology 10/2012; 3(4):368-375. · 1.15 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (MIBC) is increasing in incidence, treatment has largely remained limited to radical cystectomy with or without cisplatin-based neoadjuvant and/or adjuvant chemotherapy. We reviewed the current and recent clinical trials evaluating perioperative chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and novel therapeutic regimens for MIBC patients undergoing radical cystectomy. An overview of perioperative MIBC management was conducted initially using MEDLINE. The Clinical Trials Registry and MEDLINE were further searched specifically for perioperative MIBC chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and other novel therapeutic approaches. Trials involving non-perioperative management, operative management other than radical cystectomy, multiple tumors, or purely superficial or metastatic disease were excluded from selection. These criteria were not specifically fulfilled for mTOR inhibitors and immune therapy. Only phase III chemotherapy and phase II targeted therapy trials found in the Clinical Trials Registry were selected. MEDLINE searches of specific treatments were limited to January 2009 to January 2014 whereas the Clinical Trials Registry search had no timeline. Systematic MEDLINE searches had no phase restrictions. Trials known by the authors to fulfill search criteria but were not found via searches were also selected. Twenty-five trials were selected from the Clinical Trials Registry including 7 phase III chemotherapy trials, 11 Phase II targeted therapy trials, 3 immune therapy trials, 1 mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor trial, and 3 gene and vaccine therapy trials. Nine trials have been completed and 5 have been terminated early or withdrawn. Nine trials have data available when individually searched using MEDLINE and/or Google. Systematic searches of MEDLINE separately found 12 trials in the past 5 years. Two phase III chemotherapy trials were selected based on knowledge by the authors. Overall, only 1 head-to-head perioperative chemotherapy trial has been completed with unreported results. No phase III trials of targeted therapy have been registered or published. New trials are currently being conducted that may revolutionize MIBC treatment preceding or following cystectomy. Head-to-head phase III trials of perioperative chemotherapy and further phase II and phase III trials of targeted therapy and other therapeutic approaches are necessary before the current cisplatin-based perioperative chemotherapy paradigm is altered.
    BMC Cancer 12/2014; 14(1):966. · 3.32 Impact Factor


Available from