The interferon-gamma-induced GTPase, mGBP-2, inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) induction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) by inhibiting NF-kappaB and Rac protein.
ABSTRACT Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is important in numerous normal and pathological processes, including the angiogenic switch during tumor development and tumor metastasis. Whereas TNF-α and other cytokines up-regulate MMP-9 expression, interferons (IFNs) inhibit MMP-9 expression. We found that IFN-γ treatment or forced expression of the IFN-induced GTPase, mGBP-2, inhibit TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, by inhibiting MMP-9 transcription. The NF-κB transcription factor is required for full induction of MMP-9 by TNF-α. Both IFN-γ and mGBP-2 inhibit the transcription of a NF-κB-dependent reporter construct, suggesting that mGBP-2 inhibits MMP-9 induction via inhibition of NF-κB-mediated transcription. Interestingly, mGBP-2 does not inhibit TNF-α-induced degradation of IκBα or p65/RelA translocation into the nucleus. However, mGBP-2 inhibits p65 binding to a κB oligonucleotide probe in gel shift assays and to the MMP-9 promoter in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. In addition, TNF-α activation of NF-κB in NIH 3T3 cells is dependent on Rac activation, as evidenced by the inhibition of TNF-α induction of NF-κB-mediated transcription by a dominant inhibitory form of Rac1. A role for Rac in the inhibitory action of mGBP-2 on NF-κB is further shown by the findings that mGBP-2 inhibits TNF-α activation of endogenous Rac and constitutively activate Rac can restore NF-κB transcription in the presence of mGBP-2. This is a novel mechanism by which IFNs can inhibit the cytokine induction of MMP-9 expression.
Article: Murine GBP-2: a new IFN-gamma-induced member of the GBP family of GTPases isolated from macrophages.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have cloned a new member of the interferon (IFN)-induced guanylate-binding protein (GBP) family of GTPases, murine GBP-2 (mGBP-2), from bone marrow-derived macrophages. mGBP-2 is located on murine chromosome 3, where it is linked to mGBP-1. With the identification of mGBP-2 there are now two human and two murine GBPs. Like other GBPs, mGBP-2 RNA and protein are induced by IFN-gamma. In addition, mGBP-2 shares with the other GBPs important structural features that distinguish this family from other GTPases. First, mGBP-2 contains only two of the three consensus sequences for nucleotide binding found within the classic GTP binding regions of other GTPases. A second amino acid motif found in mGBP-2 is a potential C-terminal site for isoprenoid modification, called a CaaX sequence. mGBP-2 is prenylated, as detected by [3H]mevalonate incorporation, when expressed in COS cells and preferentially incorporates the C-20 isoprenoid geranylgeraniol. Surprisingly, despite having a functional CaaX sequence, mGBP-2 is primarily cytosolic. GBP proteins are very abundant in IFN-exposed cells, but little is known about their function. mGBP-2 is expressed by IFN-gamma-treated cells from C57Bl/6 mice, whereas mGBP-1 is not. Thus, the identification of mGBP-2 makes possible the study of GBP function in the absence of a second family member.Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research 12/1998; 18(11):977-85. · 3.06 Impact Factor
Article: Protein kinase C-zeta regulates transcription of the matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene induced by IL-1 and TNF-alpha in glioma cells via NF-kappa B.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in glioma cells is one of the key processes in tumor invasion through the brain extracellular matrix. Although some studies have demonstrated the implication of classic protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in the regulation of MMP-9 production by phorbol esters or lipopolysaccharide, the involvement of specific PKC isoforms in the signaling pathways leading to MMP-9 expression by inflammatory cytokines remains unclear. Here we report that the atypical PKC-zeta isoform participates in the induction of MMP-9 expression by interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in rat C6 glioma cells. Indeed, zymography and semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis showed that pretreatment of C6 cells with PKC-zeta pseudosubstrate abolished MMP-9 activity and gene expression induced by IL-1 or TNF-alpha. Accordingly, IL-1 and TNF-alpha were able to induce PKC-zeta activity, as demonstrated by in vitro kinase assay using immunoprecipitated PKC-zeta. Furthermore, stable C6 clones overexpressing PKC-zeta, but not PKC-epsilon, displayed an up-regulation of MMP-9 constitutive expression as well as an increase of mmp-9 promoter activity. These processes were inhibited by an NF-kappaB-blocking peptide and completely prevented by NF-kappaB-binding site mutation in the mmp-9 promoter. Taken together, these results indicate that PKC-zeta plays a key role in the regulation of MMP-9 expression in C6 glioma cells through NF-kappaB.Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2002; 277(38):35150-5. · 4.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IFNs selectively regulate gene expression through several signaling pathways. The present study explored the involvement of STAT3 in the IFN-induced expression of the gene encoding the CXCL11 chemokine. The CXCL11 gene was induced in IFN-sensitive Daudi cells, but not in an IFN-resistant DRST3 subline with a defective STAT3 signaling pathway. Although the IFN-stimulated gene ISG15 was induced to a similar extent in Daudi and DRST3 cells, expression of wild-type STAT3 in DRST3 cells restored the IFN inducibility of CXCL11. Reconstitution of STAT3 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts with wild-type STAT3, or STAT3 with the canonical STAT3 dimerization site at Y705 mutated, restored IFN inducibility of the CXCL11 gene. These data indicate that CXCL11 gene induction by IFN is STAT3 dependent, but that phosphorylation of Y705 of STAT3 is not required. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that IFN treatment of Daudi and DRST3 cells induced STAT3 binding to the CXCL11 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays also revealed that NF-kappaB family member p65 and IFN regulatory factor (IRF)1 were bound to CXCL11 promoter upon IFN treatment of Daudi cells. In contrast, IFN induced the binding of p50 and IRF2 to the CXCL11 promoter in DRST3 cells. The profile of promoter binding was indistinguishable in IFN-sensitive Daudi cells and DRST3 cells reconstituted with wild-type STAT3. Thus, STAT3 also plays a role in the recruitment of the transcriptional activators p65 and IRF1, and the displacement of the transcriptional repressors p50 and IRF2 from the CXCL11 promoter also appears to regulate the induction of CXCL11 gene transcription.The Journal of Immunology 02/2007; 178(2):986-92. · 5.79 Impact Factor