The double-stranded RNA-binding protein PACT functions as a cellular activator of RIG-I to facilitate innate antiviral response.
ABSTRACT RIG-I, a virus sensor that triggers innate antiviral response, is a DExD/H box RNA helicase bearing structural similarity with Dicer, an RNase III-type nuclease that mediates RNA interference. Dicer requires double-stranded RNA-binding protein partners, such as PACT, for optimal activity. Here we show that PACT physically binds to the C-terminal repression domain of RIG-I and potently stimulates RIG-I-induced type I interferon production. PACT potentiates the activation of RIG-I by poly(I:C) of intermediate length. PACT also cooperates with RIG-I to sustain the activation of antiviral defense. Depletion of PACT substantially attenuates viral induction of interferons. The activation of RIG-I by PACT does not require double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase or Dicer, but is mediated by a direct interaction that leads to stimulation of its ATPase activity. Our findings reveal PACT as an important component in initiating and sustaining the RIG-I-dependent antiviral response.
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ABSTRACT: Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that are spontaneously produced in response to virus infection. They act by binding to IFN-receptors (IFN-R), which trigger JAK/STAT cell signalling and the subsequent induction of hundreds of IFN-inducible genes, including both protein-coding and microRNA genes. IFN-induced genes then act synergistically to prevent virus replication and create an anti-viral state. miRNA are therefore integral to the innate response to virus infection and are important components of IFN-mediated biology. On the other hand viruses also encode miRNAs that in some cases interfere directly with the IFN response to infection. This review summarizes the important roles of miRNAs in virus infection acting both as IFN-stimulated anti-viral molecules and as critical regulators of IFNs and IFN-stimulated genes. It also highlights how recent knowledge in RNA editing influence miRNA control of virus infection.Molecular Immunology 08/2013; 56(4):781-793. DOI:10.1016/j.molimm.2013.07.009 · 3.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Host defense to RNA viruses depends on rapid intracellular recognition of viral RNA by two cytoplasmic RNA helicases: RIG-I and MDA5. RNA transfection experiments indicate that RIG-I responds to naked double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) with a triphosphorylated 5' (5'ppp) terminus. However, the identity of the RIG-I stimulating viral structures in an authentic infection context remains unresolved. We show that incoming viral nucleocapsids containing a 5'ppp dsRNA "panhandle" structure trigger antiviral signaling that commences with RIG-I, is mediated through the adaptor protein MAVS, and terminates with transcription factor IRF-3. Independent of mammalian cofactors or viral polymerase activity, RIG-I bound to viral nucleocapsids, underwent a conformational switch, and homo-oligomerized. Enzymatic probing and superresolution microscopy suggest that RIG-I interacts with the panhandle structure of the viral nucleocapsids. These results define cytoplasmic entry of nucleocapsids as the proximal RIG-I-sensitive step during infection and establish viral nucleocapsids with a 5'ppp dsRNA panhandle as a RIG-I activator.Cell host & microbe 03/2013; 13(3):336-46. DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2013.01.012 · 12.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A collection of molecular sensors has been defined by studies in the last decade that can recognize a diverse array of pathogens and initiate protective immune and inflammatory responses. However, if the molecular signatures recognized are shared by both foreign and self-molecules, as is the case of nucleic acids, then the responses initiated by these sensors may have deleterious consequences. Notably, this adverse occurrence may be of primary importance in autoimmune disease pathogenesis. In this case, microbe-induced damage or mishandled physiologic processes could lead to the generation of microparticles containing self-nucleic acids. These particles may inappropriately gain access to the cytosol or endolysosomes and, hence, engage resident RNA and DNA sensors. Evidence, as reviewed here, strongly indicates that these sensors are primary contributors to autoimmune disease pathogenesis, spearheading efforts toward development of novel therapeutics for these disorders.Journal of interferon & cytokine research: the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research 12/2011; 31(12):867-86. DOI:10.1089/jir.2011.0092 · 3.90 Impact Factor