Resolvin D1 (RvD1), an endogenous lipid molecule derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been described to promote inflammatory resolution. The present study aimed to determine the protective effects and the underlying mechanisms of RvD1 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Pretreatment RvD1 to mice 30 min before inducing ALI by LPS decreased the mortality and improved lung pathological changes, inhibited LPS-induced increases in polymorphonulear and mononuclear leukocytes recruitment, total proteins content, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs). In addition, RvD1 markedly reduced LPS-induced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and adhesion molecules, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Moreover, RvD1 markedly inhibited LPS-induced the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Furthermore, pretreatment with Boc, a lipoxin A4 receptor (ALX) antagonist, significantly reversed these beneficial effects of RvD1 on LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice. Taken together, our study showed that RvD1 improved survival rate and attenuated ALI in mice induced by LPS, and the protective mechanisms might be related to selective reaction with ALX, which inhibits MAPKs and NF-κB pathway.
"In murine peritonitis in vivo, it has been proven that RvD1 can stop transendothelial migration of human neutrophils and limit PMN infiltration in a dose-dependent fashion  . Studies have also shown that RvD1 can protect mice from LPS-induced acute lung injury . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resolvin D1 (RvD1), an endogenous lipid mediator derived from docosahexaenoic acid, has been reported to promote a biphasic activity in anti-inflammatory response and regulate inflammatory resolution. The present study aimed to determine the endogenous expression pattern of RvD1 in a rat model of self-resolution of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and inflammation. The ARDS model was induced by administrating LPS (2 mg/kg) via tracheotomy in 138 male Sprague–Dawley rats. At specified time points, lung injury and inflammation were respectively assessed by lung histology and analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and cytokine levels. The expression of endogenous RvD1 was detected by high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that histological lung injury peaked between 6 h (LPS6h) and day 3, followed by recovery over 4–10 days after LPS administration. Lung tissue polymorph nuclear cell (PMN) was significantly increased at LPS6h, and peaked between 6 h to day 2. The levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 were significantly increased at LPS6h and remained higher over day 10 as compared to baseline. Intriguingly, the endogenous RvD1 expression was decreased gradually during the first 3 days, followed by almost completely recovery over days 9–10. The finding indicated that endogenous RvD1 underwent a decrease in expression followed by gradual increase that was basically coincident with the lung injury recovery in a rat model of self-resolution LPS-induced ARDS and inflammation. Our results may help define the optimal therapeutic window for endogenous RvD1 to prevent or treat LPS-induced ARDS and inflammation.
International Immunopharmacology 11/2014; 23(1). DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2014.09.001 · 2.47 Impact Factor
"Currently, investigators have found that many monomers extracted from herbs exert anti-inflammatory effects in animal models. These agents target inflammatory signaling pathways, such as NF-B and MAPKs, to inhibit inflammation, and some of them significantly improve the survival rates of ALI models (Wang et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2011). The activation of NF-B and MAPKs could trigger transcriptional up-regulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine hyper secretion, which is one of the main inflammatory mechanisms underlying ALI. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we aimed to investigate our hypothesis starting that Schisantherin A (SchA), which exerts significant anti-inflammatory effects in vitro, could reduce the pulmonary inflammatory response in an acute lung injury (ALI) model. ALI was induced in mice by exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 20mg/kg), and the inflammatory mediator production, neutrophil infiltration, and histopathological changes were evaluated. SchA at a dose of 100mg/kg significantly improved survival rate of mice injected with LPS. The levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the histopathological changes due to the injury were significantly inhibited when SchA was administered before or after LPS insult, and the infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages in lung tissues induced by LPS were suppressed by SchA. Additionally, pretreatment with SchA notably blocked the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Taken together, SchA showed obvious anti-inflammatory effects in an LPS-induced ALI model via blockage of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways. Thus, SchA may be an innovative therapy for inflammatory diseases.
"Resolvins of the D-series appear equally efficacious as RvE1 (Dalli et al., 2013a). Resolvin D1 (RvD1) treatment prior to LPS-induced acute lung injury improves pathological indices and survival rates (Wang et al., 2011) and might be equally effective in central nervous system inflammation (Xu et al., 2013). The common mechanism appears to be suppression of NF-kB activation in a partly PPAR-g-dependent manner, with associated reduction in downstream signaling and alterations in transcriptomics (Arita et al., 2005; Liao et al., 2012). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory responses, like all biological cascades, are shaped by a delicate balance between positive and negative feedback loops. It is now clear that in addition to positive and negative checkpoints, the inflammatory cascade rather unexpectedly boasts an additional checkpoint, a family of chemicals that actively promote resolution and tissue repair without compromising host defense. Indeed, the resolution phase of inflammation is just as actively orchestrated and carefully choreographed as its induction and inhibition. In this review, we explore the immunological consequences of omega-3-derived specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) and discuss their place within what is currently understood of the role of the arachidonic acid-derived prostaglandins, lipoxins, and their natural C15-epimers. We propose that treatment of inflammation should not be restricted to the use of inhibitors of the acute cascade (antagonism) but broadened to take account of the enormous therapeutic potential of inducers (agonists) of the resolution phase of inflammation.
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