Resolvin D1 protects mice from LPS-induced acute lung injury.
ABSTRACT Resolvin D1 (RvD1), an endogenous lipid molecule derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been described to promote inflammatory resolution. The present study aimed to determine the protective effects and the underlying mechanisms of RvD1 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Pretreatment RvD1 to mice 30 min before inducing ALI by LPS decreased the mortality and improved lung pathological changes, inhibited LPS-induced increases in polymorphonulear and mononuclear leukocytes recruitment, total proteins content, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs). In addition, RvD1 markedly reduced LPS-induced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and adhesion molecules, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Moreover, RvD1 markedly inhibited LPS-induced the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Furthermore, pretreatment with Boc, a lipoxin A4 receptor (ALX) antagonist, significantly reversed these beneficial effects of RvD1 on LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice. Taken together, our study showed that RvD1 improved survival rate and attenuated ALI in mice induced by LPS, and the protective mechanisms might be related to selective reaction with ALX, which inhibits MAPKs and NF-κB pathway.
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ABSTRACT: Studies into the mechanisms in resolution of self-limited inflammation and acute reperfusion injury have uncovered a new genus of pro-resolving lipid mediators coined specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) including lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins that are each temporally produced by resolving-exudates with distinct actions for return to homeostasis. SPM evoke potent anti-inflammatory and novel pro-resolving mechanisms as well as enhance microbial clearance. While born in inflammation-resolution, SPM are conserved structures with functions discovered in microbial defense, pain, organ protection and tissue regeneration, wound healing, cancer, reproduction, and neurobiology-cognition. This review covers these SPM mechanisms and other new omega-3 PUFA pathways that open their path for functions in resolution physiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Seminars in Immunology 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.smim.2015.03.004 · 6.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Resolvin D1 (RvD1), an endogenous lipid mediator derived from docosahexaenoic acid, has been reported to promote a biphasic activity in anti-inflammatory response and regulate inflammatory resolution. The present study aimed to determine the endogenous expression pattern of RvD1 in a rat model of self-resolution of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and inflammation. The ARDS model was induced by administrating LPS (2 mg/kg) via tracheotomy in 138 male Sprague–Dawley rats. At specified time points, lung injury and inflammation were respectively assessed by lung histology and analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and cytokine levels. The expression of endogenous RvD1 was detected by high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that histological lung injury peaked between 6 h (LPS6h) and day 3, followed by recovery over 4–10 days after LPS administration. Lung tissue polymorph nuclear cell (PMN) was significantly increased at LPS6h, and peaked between 6 h to day 2. The levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 were significantly increased at LPS6h and remained higher over day 10 as compared to baseline. Intriguingly, the endogenous RvD1 expression was decreased gradually during the first 3 days, followed by almost completely recovery over days 9–10. The finding indicated that endogenous RvD1 underwent a decrease in expression followed by gradual increase that was basically coincident with the lung injury recovery in a rat model of self-resolution LPS-induced ARDS and inflammation. Our results may help define the optimal therapeutic window for endogenous RvD1 to prevent or treat LPS-induced ARDS and inflammation.International Immunopharmacology 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2014.09.001 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The respiratory epithelium consists of lung sentinel cells, which are the first to contact inhaled inflammatory insults, including air pollutants, smoke, and microorganisms. To avoid damaging exuberant or chronic inflammation, the inflammatory process must be tightly controlled and terminated once the insult is mitigated. Inflammation resolution is now known to be an active process involving a new genus of lipid mediators, called "specialized proresolving lipid mediators," that includes resolvin D1 (RvD1). We and others have reported that RvD1 counteracts proinflammatory signaling and promotes resolution. A knowledge gap is that the specific cellular targets and mechanisms of action for RvD1 remain largely unknown. In this article, we identified the mechanism whereby RvD1 disrupts inflammatory mediator production induced by the viral mimic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] in primary human lung epithelial cells. RvD1 strongly suppressed the viral mimic poly(I:C)-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production and proinflammatory signaling involving MAPKs and NF-κB. Most importantly, we found that RvD1 inhibited the phosphorylation of TAK1 (TGF-β-activated kinase 1), a key upstream regulatory kinase common to both the MAPK and NF-κB pathways, by inhibiting the formation of a poly(I:C)-induced signaling complex composed of TAK1, TAB1 (TAK1 binding protein), and TRAF6 (TNF receptor-associated factor 6). We confirmed that ALX/FPR2 and GPR32, two RvD1 receptors, were expressed on human small airway epithelial cells. Furthermore, blocking these receptors abrogated the inhibitory action of RvD1. In this article, we present the idea that RvD1 has the potential to be used as an anti-inflammatory and proresolving agent, possibly in the context of exuberant host responses to damaging respirable agents such as viruses.