Epidemiology and control of low pathogenicity avian influenza infections in rural poultry in Italy.
ABSTRACT We analyzed the involvement of the rural poultry sector in outbreaks of low pathogenicity avian influenza (AI) in Italy in 2007-2009 and discuss possible measures for improving monitoring and control. A description of how the rural poultry sector is organized also is provided. Data were obtained by the AI surveillance system established in the areas affected by the outbreaks. The surveillance activities identified two H7N3 epidemics, in 2007 and 2009, both of which mainly involved the rural sector, yet these activities did not allow for the prompt eradication of the disease. Additional strategies could be adopted to avoid the persistence of AI within the rural sector, based on the regulation and control of poultry holdings at the top of the production chain.
Article: Avian Influenza in Italy 1997–2001Avian Diseases - AVIAN DIS. 01/2003; 47:839-843.
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ABSTRACT: The present paper reports of the development and validation of a control strategy for avian influenza infections in poultry. The "DIVA" (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) strategy is based on the use of an inactivated oil emulsion vaccine containing the same haemagglutinin (H) subtype as the challenge virus, but a different neuraminidase (N). The possibility of using the heterologous N subtype, to differentiate between vaccinated and naturally infected birds, was investigated through the development of an "ad hoc" serological test based on the detection of specific anti-N1 antibodies. This was achieved using a baculovirus expressing a recombinant N1 protein. The A/ck/Pakistan/H7N3 virus was used as a vaccine and birds were challenged with the HPAI A/ty/Italy/4580/V99/H7N1 strain. The homologous H group ensured a clinical protection of 93% regardless of the vaccination scheme used, and was able to prevent viraemia and muscle colonization in the clinically healthy challenged birds. However, it was not able to prevent viral shedding. The "ad hoc" serological assay was developed as an indirect immunofluorescence test, and was validated using 608 field sera, and showed an "almost perfect agreement" (Kappa value) with the HI test, with relative sensitivity and specificity values of 98.1 and 95.7, respectively. The results of the present investigation suggest that the "DIVA" control strategy may represent a tool for the control of avian influenza infections in poultry.Avian Pathology 03/2003; 32(1):47-55. · 1.73 Impact Factor
- Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 01/2010; 4:91 - 99. · 1.47 Impact Factor