Epidemiology and Control of Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Infections in Rural Poultry in Italy
ABSTRACT We analyzed the involvement of the rural poultry sector in outbreaks of low pathogenicity avian influenza (AI) in Italy in 2007-2009 and discuss possible measures for improving monitoring and control. A description of how the rural poultry sector is organized also is provided. Data were obtained by the AI surveillance system established in the areas affected by the outbreaks. The surveillance activities identified two H7N3 epidemics, in 2007 and 2009, both of which mainly involved the rural sector, yet these activities did not allow for the prompt eradication of the disease. Additional strategies could be adopted to avoid the persistence of AI within the rural sector, based on the regulation and control of poultry holdings at the top of the production chain.
- SourceAvailable from: Olatunde Akanbi
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- "It was anticipated that the confirmation of the first outbreak of HPAI on the African continent could have multiple consequences  if it spread further to wild and domestic birds. This is because, it is common practice to keep rural poultry in free-range, multispecies, multiage holdings that have low biosecurity levels thus exposing them to many at-risk contacts, and they could act as the epidemiologic link between the wild reservoir of AI viruses  and industrial poultry. This was evident in Nigeria as new cases of HPAI (H5N1) were detected during the surveillance activities  at the live bird markets in July 2008 in Gombe city, Gombe state after a 9-month period of influenza outbreak. "
ABSTRACT: Backyard poultry farms infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in Nigeria between 2006 and 2008 were investigated for morbidity, mortality and Pathology. Affected farms raised local chickens, duck, turkey, guinea fowl and geese and were already confirmed to be infected with HPAI virus by virus isolation and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction at the National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom Nigeria. Backyard local chickens recorded the highest number of death with 89.4% of the total flock size while the duck had the highest mortality rate at 87.1%. Mortality rate was least in guinea fowls (20.55%), and above average in geese (54.64%). For Pathology, submitted carcasses comprised of sixty (60) chickens, twenty-nine (29) ducks, thirty-seven (37) turkeys, fourteen (14) guinea fowls and twelve (12) geese which were examined for gross morphological changes and histopathology. Though lesions sparingly occurred in these village poultry, main pathologic findings were associated with the nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and gastro-intestinal systems and occasionally lesions were general unspecific and multi-systemic. It was observed that mortality rate was highest in duck, then chicken and turkey compared to guinea fowl and geese while lesions were milder and mortality were acute in these flocks. Key words: backyard poultry, morbidity, mortality, pathology09/2014; Volume 7(Volume 7, Issue 9 Ver. II (Sep. 2014)):PP 23-27. DOI:10.9790/2380-07922327
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- "Although the rural poultry handlers are interested to know about possible steps to block transmission of similar outbreaks of infectious diseases, almost no study has been conducted at Bangladesh to address their queries. It is true that studies have been conducted in mainly developed countries about possible blocking of transmission cycle of infections agents (Sims et al., 2005; Ellis et al., 2006; Khan et al., 2009; Martin et al., 2010; Cecchinato et al., 2011). However, raising of family poultry is endowed with specific features in each developing country on the basis of their socio-economic and cultural heritages. "
ABSTRACT: Key words: Avian influenza (H5N1) Family poultry Integrated farming Risks of infection Rural area Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus type H5N1 represents one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality of poultry in both developed and developing countries. However, little is known about the transmission of this virus in developing countries that usually raise poultry as family-based farming. The study was conducted at 10 of total 64 administrative districts of Bangladesh that experienced H5N1 virus outbreaks since 2007. Trained field workers visited 30 rural families at each district to check family poultry management system. The collected data were transcribed and coded according to the standardized mutual performance of the field workers. Approximately two-third of farmers (67%) were rearing only chickens and remaining (33%) both chickens and ducks. Most of the farmers provided night shelter to their birds inside their living room (24%) or close proximate (69%). Usually ducks were scavenged in water land (58.6%) or paddy field (18.2%). The majority of owners (93%) also shared the same water land with migratory/wild birds for their daily necessity. The marketing system of poultry was characterized by comprehensive interactions among family poultry and commercial birds for prolonged duration. Unsold or newly bought birds were brought back to farmer's house in almost all instances (97.8%). Findings from this study indicated that interactions of domestic chickens and ducks with their owners (through contaminated agricultural and fisheries tools or clothing) are partially, if not solely, responsible for wide spread transmission of Avian influenza virus type H5N1. ©2011 PVJ. All rights reserved To Cite This Article: Khan MSI, SMF Akbar, ST Hossain, M Mahatab, MM Hossain and Z Idrus, 2012. Possible route of transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus type H5N1 in family poultry at rural Bangladesh. Pak Vet J, 32(x): xxx.
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ABSTRACT: The epidemiology and the sanitary situation of avian influenza changed dramatically with the emergence of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus (HPAI) in 1996. As a consequence, knowledge previously accumulated on the epidemiology and the ecology of the avian influenza viruses was questioned and was required to be updated to understand the current pandemic caused by the virus (Webster, 2007; Sturm-Ramirez, 2005). This PhD combined a number of different epidemiological studies aimed at understanding the epidemiology of the H5N1 virus in the natural and human context of the Red River Delta area in Northern Vietnam. Firstly, retrospectives studies were conducted to identify the determinants of occurrence of HPAI outbreaks at 2 different scales: provincial and regional. Those 2 approaches allowed us to study the influence of the poultry production systems (provincial scale) and the influence of environmental determinants (regional scale). In addition, substantial field work was undertaken to monitor the serological and virological prevalence of HPAI in domestic poultry in our study area. After evaluation of the serological diagnostic tools being used, the data analysis contributed to a better understanding of the epidemiology of the H5N1 virus within a mass vaccination context. Furthermore, an evaluation of the vaccination strategy and implementation was also possible. In addition, to support our findings, a specific protocol to monitor the antibody kinetics of vaccinated poultry under field conditions was also conducted. Finally, a study was undertaken, in collaboration with a sociologist, to better capture the way sanitary information was circulating within our community of poultry farmers and through the formal surveillance system. Together with the results of our epidemiological work, this sociological study enabled us to propose measures to improve the surveillance and control of HPAI at the community level, to assist the people whose livelihoods were most affected.01/2012, Degree: PhD