We analyzed the involvement of the rural poultry sector in outbreaks of low pathogenicity avian influenza (AI) in Italy in 2007-2009 and discuss possible measures for improving monitoring and control. A description of how the rural poultry sector is organized also is provided. Data were obtained by the AI surveillance system established in the areas affected by the outbreaks. The surveillance activities identified two H7N3 epidemics, in 2007 and 2009, both of which mainly involved the rural sector, yet these activities did not allow for the prompt eradication of the disease. Additional strategies could be adopted to avoid the persistence of AI within the rural sector, based on the regulation and control of poultry holdings at the top of the production chain.
"It was anticipated that the confirmation of the first outbreak of HPAI on the African continent could have multiple consequences  if it spread further to wild and domestic birds. This is because, it is common practice to keep rural poultry in free-range, multispecies, multiage holdings that have low biosecurity levels thus exposing them to many at-risk contacts, and they could act as the epidemiologic link between the wild reservoir of AI viruses  and industrial poultry. This was evident in Nigeria as new cases of HPAI (H5N1) were detected during the surveillance activities  at the live bird markets in July 2008 in Gombe city, Gombe state after a 9-month period of influenza outbreak. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Backyard poultry farms infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in Nigeria between 2006 and 2008 were investigated for morbidity, mortality and Pathology. Affected farms raised local chickens, duck, turkey, guinea fowl and geese and were already confirmed to be infected with HPAI virus by virus isolation and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction at the National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom Nigeria. Backyard local chickens recorded the highest number of death with 89.4% of the total flock size while the duck had the highest mortality rate at 87.1%. Mortality rate was least in guinea fowls (20.55%), and above average in geese (54.64%). For Pathology, submitted carcasses comprised of sixty (60) chickens, twenty-nine (29) ducks, thirty-seven (37) turkeys, fourteen (14) guinea fowls and twelve (12) geese which were examined for gross morphological changes and histopathology. Though lesions sparingly occurred in these village poultry, main pathologic findings were associated with the nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and gastro-intestinal systems and occasionally lesions were general unspecific and multi-systemic. It was observed that mortality rate was highest in duck, then chicken and turkey compared to guinea fowl and geese while lesions were milder and mortality were acute in these flocks. Key words: backyard poultry, morbidity, mortality, pathology
"Although the rural poultry handlers are interested to know about possible steps to block transmission of similar outbreaks of infectious diseases, almost no study has been conducted at Bangladesh to address their queries. It is true that studies have been conducted in mainly developed countries about possible blocking of transmission cycle of infections agents (Sims et al., 2005; Ellis et al., 2006; Khan et al., 2009; Martin et al., 2010; Cecchinato et al., 2011). However, raising of family poultry is endowed with specific features in each developing country on the basis of their socio-economic and cultural heritages. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epidemiology and the sanitary situation of avian influenza changed dramatically with the
emergence of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus (HPAI) in 1996. As a consequence, knowledge
previously accumulated on the epidemiology and the ecology of the avian influenza viruses
was questioned and was required to be updated to understand the current pandemic caused
by the virus (Webster, 2007; Sturm-Ramirez, 2005).
This PhD combined a number of different epidemiological studies aimed at understanding
the epidemiology of the H5N1 virus in the natural and human context of the Red River
Delta area in Northern Vietnam.
Firstly, retrospectives studies were conducted to identify the determinants of occurrence
of HPAI outbreaks at 2 different scales: provincial and regional. Those 2 approaches
allowed us to study the influence of the poultry production systems (provincial scale) and
the influence of environmental determinants (regional scale).
In addition, substantial field work was undertaken to monitor the serological and
virological prevalence of HPAI in domestic poultry in our study area. After evaluation of
the serological diagnostic tools being used, the data analysis contributed to a better
understanding of the epidemiology of the H5N1 virus within a mass vaccination context.
Furthermore, an evaluation of the vaccination strategy and implementation was also
possible. In addition, to support our findings, a specific protocol to monitor the antibody
kinetics of vaccinated poultry under field conditions was also conducted.
Finally, a study was undertaken, in collaboration with a sociologist, to better capture the
way sanitary information was circulating within our community of poultry farmers and
through the formal surveillance system.
Together with the results of our epidemiological work, this sociological study enabled us
to propose measures to improve the surveillance and control of HPAI at the community
level, to assist the people whose livelihoods were most affected.
Abhisek Kumar Behera, Ishwar Chandra, Sarah S Cherian
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