The newly identified cytokines, IL-28/IL-29 (also termed type III IFNs), are able to inhibit a number of viruses. Here, we examined the antiviral effects of IL-29/IL-28A against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in human NT2-N neurons and CHP212 neuronal cells. Both IL-29 and IL-28A could efficiently inhibit HSV-1 replication in neuronal cells, as evidenced by the reduced expression of HSV-1 DNA and proteins. This inhibitory effect of IL-29 and IL-28A against HSV-1 could be partially blocked by antibody to IL-10Rβ, one of the key receptors for IL-29 and IL-28A. To explore the underlying antiviral mechanisms employed by IL-29/IL-28A, we showed that IL-29/IL-28A could selectively induce the expression of several Toll-like receptors (TLRs) as well as activate TLR-mediated antiviral pathway, including IFN regulatory factor 7, IFN-α, and the key IFN-α stimulated antiviral genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lambda interferons (IL-28a, 28b, and IL-29) inhibit the replication of many viruses, but their role in the inhibition of HIV-1 infection remains unclear. During this study, we monitored IL-29 production in HIV-1 infected individuals and analyzed the in vitro and in vivo inhibition of HIV-1 production. Prior treatment with IL-28a or IL-29 induced an antiviral state in cultured primary T-cells, which suppressed HIV-1 integration and post-transcriptional events. The antiviral factors MxA, OAS, and PKR were up-regulated. In HIV-1 infected patients, IL-29 level was increased along with the depletion of CD4⁺ T-cells in peripheral blood, while the elevated IL-29 did not show a significantly negative correlation with viral load. Further analysis of HIV-1 infected individuals showed that IL-29 was positively correlated with IFN-β and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and was negatively correlated with IFN-γ, which might suggest that IFN-λ participates in modulating antiviral immune responses during HIV-1 infection in vivo. Together, although IFN-λ impeded HIV-1 infection of T-cells in vitro, IFN-λ showed only limited in vivo repression of viral production. The modulation of IFN-λ on inflammatory factors might be worthy for further concentrating on for better understanding the host immune response during HIV-1 infection.
Antiviral research 05/2012; 95(1):57-65. DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2012.04.011 · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To characterize clinical features, neuroimaging, and outcomes of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in immunocompromised individuals.
We performed a retrospective case control review of patients diagnosed with HSE. Adult patients were dichotomized into immunocompromised (n = 14) and immunocompetent groups (n = 15).
Fewer immunocompromised patients presented with prodromal symptoms and focal deficits. While the majority of CSF profiles in the immunocompromised patients were mononuclear cells predominant, 3 had polymorphonuclear predominance and another 3 had normal profiles. MRI showed widespread cortical involvement, with brainstem or cerebellar involvement in some. Two immunocompromised patients had recurrent HSE. The immunosuppressed state was associated with a decrease in Karnofsky Performance Status Scale (KPSS) score of 23.1 (p = 0.018). Every 1-day delay in initiation of acyclovir was associated with a decrease in KPSS of 10.2 (p = 0.002), and every 10 cell/mm(3) increase of CSF leukocytosis was associated with an increase in KPSS of 0.7 (p = 0.009). Mortality rate was 6 times higher in the immunocompromised patients.
Immunocompromised states may predispose to HSE with atypical clinical and neuroradiologic features. Immunocompromised individuals with HSE have significantly worse outcomes and mortality. Early diagnosis and treatment is associated with improved outcome. The findings are particularly important in light of the increasing use of potent immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IFN-λ induces an antiviral state in many cell types and may contribute to the overall inflammatory environment after infection. Either of these effects may influence adaptive immune responses, but the role of type 3 IFNs in the development of primary and memory T cell responses to infection has not been evaluated. In this study, we examined T cell responses to acute or persistent lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in IFN-λR1-deficient mice. Following acute infection, we find that IFN-λR1-deficient mice produced normal levels of IFN, robust NK cell responses, but greater than normal CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses compared with wild type BALB/c mice. There were more T cells that were IL-7R(hi) and, correspondingly, the IFN-λR-deficient mice showed a 2- to 3-fold increase in memory T cell number. The inhibitory effect of IFN-λR expression was independent of direct cytokine signaling into T cells. In contrast with acute infection, the IFN-λR-deficient mice generated markedly diminished T cell responses and had greater weight loss compared with wild type mice when confronted with a highly disseminating variant of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. These data indicate that IFN-λR limits T cell responses and memory after transient infection but augments T cell responses during persisting infection. Thus, the immune-regulatory functions for IFN-λR are complex and vary with the overall inflammatory environment.
The Journal of Immunology 03/2014; 192(8). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1301705 · 4.92 Impact Factor
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