Interobserver variability of laryngeal mucosal premalignant lesions: a histopathological evaluation.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study is to measure interobserver variability in the classification of laryngeal mucosal premalignant lesions by reassessing the histopathology of previously diagnosed cases and to determine the possible therapeutic consequences of disagreement among observers. Histopathological assessment of 110 laryngeal mucosal premalignant lesions was done by three pathologists. Each slide had to be classified according to the World Health Organization, Squamous Intraepithelial Neoplasia, and the Ljubljana Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions systems. After the independent assessment, a joint meeting took place. To assess the relation between histopathological grading and subsequent clinical management, we created a two- and a three-grade system besides one comprising all options. For all analyses, the SAS/STAT statistical software was used. The highest unweighted κ-values concerning the all-options system are observed for the Squamous Intraepithelial Neoplasia classification (0.28, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.33), followed by the World Health Organization and Ljubljana classifications. For the two-grade system the Ljubljana classification shows the highest unweighted κ-values (0.50, 95%, 0.39-0.61), followed by the World Health Organization and Squamous Intraepithelial Neoplasia classifications. For the three-grade system, the unweighted κ-values are similar. The implementation of weighted κ-values led to higher scores within all three classification systems, although these did not exceed 0.55 (moderate agreement). Given the high level of consensus, simultaneous pathological assessment may be said to provide added value in comparison with independent assessment. In the current study, no clear tendency is observed in favor of any one classification system. The proposed three-grade system could be an improved histopathological tool because it is easier to correlate with clinical decision making and because it yields better unweighted κ-values and proportions of concordance than the all-options system. Furthermore, clinical management could benefit from assessment by more than one pathologist in suspected cases of dysplasia or carcinoma.
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ABSTRACT: The source of precursor lesions of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and pharynx, their classification, and grading are controversial. In contrast, vulvar and penile cancer precursor lesions are known to be related to human papillomavirus or chronic inflammation and can be described using the vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) classification system (VIN 1-3) or as differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (dVIN), respectively. Oral and pharyngeal SCC precursor lesions are more etiologically diverse, and the spectrum of lesions may thus be wider. No international consensus exists regarding the histological types of precursor lesions or the significance of individual types. We therefore reviewed resection specimens and preceding biopsies of 155 patients with SCC of the oral cavity and pharynx (excluding tonsils) and identified five basic patterns of SCC-associated or precursor lesions: (1) pleomorphic (22/155), (2) basaloid (5/155), (3) differentiated (63/155), (4) mixed (42/155), and (5) verrucous (12/155). Keratinization was a common but variable feature in differentiated, mixed, and verrucous dysplasia. In 11/155 patients, no precursor lesion could be identified. Progression of isolated differentiated dysplasia (ranging from months to years) was documented in 13/155 (8 %) of patients. Our data suggest that full-thickness epithelial dysplasia of pleomorphic or basaloid type is present in <20 % of oral and pharyngeal SCC, and differentiated dysplasia is a frequent precursor or associated in situ lesion. Failure to recognize differentiated dysplasia results in the underdiagnosis of many patients at risk for invasive carcinoma. These results indicate a need to refine criteria to distinguish differentiated dysplasia from morphologically related lichenoid lesions.Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 04/2013; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The study aimed at checking if MAGE-A expression in oral leukoplakia (OLP) lesions is related to malignant transformation. The 48 samples of OLP that transformed to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) (group 1) and 50 samples of OLP that did not transform to OSCC (group 2) were included in the study. The expression of MAGE-A was restricted to group 1. The correlation between malignant transformation and MAGE-A occurrence in OLP was statistically significant (p < .0001). Detection of MAGE-A may allow identifying OLP with a high risk of malignant transformation giving a view to a new approach to prevention of oral cancer.Cancer Investigation 05/2012; 30(7):495-502. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aberrant histone acetylation plays an essential role in the neoplastic process via the epigenetic silencing of tumour suppressor genes (TSGs); therefore, the inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDAC) has become a promising target in cancer therapeutics. To investigate the correlation of histone acetylation with clinicopathological features and TSG expression, we examined the expression of acetylated H3 (AcH3), RARβ2, E-cadherin, and β-catenin by immunohistochemistry in 65 cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients. The results revealed that the absence of AcH3 was directly associated with poor histological differentiation and nodal metastasis as well as reduced/negative expression of RARβ2, E-cadherin, and β-catenin in clinical tumour samples. We further demonstrated that the clinically available HDAC inhibitors valproic acid (VPA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), in combination with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), can overcome the epigenetic barriers to transcription of RARβ2 in human cervical cancer cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the combination treatment increased the enrichment of acetylated histone in the RARβ2-RARE promoter region. In view of these findings, we evaluated the antitumor effects induced by combined VPA and ATRA treatment in a xenograft model implanted with poorly differentiated human squamous cell carcinoma. Notably, VPA restored RARβ2 expression via epigenetic modulation. Additive antitumour effects were produced in tumour xenografts by combining VPA with ATRA treatment. Mechanistically, the combination treatment reactivated the expression of TSGs RARβ2, E-cadherin, P21 (CIP1) , and P53 and reduced the level of p-Stat3. Sequentially, upregulation of involucrin and loricrin, which indicate terminal differentiation, strongly contributed to tumour growth inhibition along with partial apoptosis. In conclusion, targeted therapy with HDAC inhibitors and RARβ2 agonists may represent a novel therapeutic approach for patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e80657. · 3.73 Impact Factor