Clinical features of punctate inner choroidopathy in Chinese patients.
ABSTRACT To characterize the clinical features of punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) in Chinese patients.
A retrospective chart review of all patients admitted with PIC from June 1999 to October 2009.
Of the 75 patients (112 eyes) diagnosed with PIC, 72% were women, 80% were myopic, and 49% exhibited bilateral involvement. The mean age at presentation was 32 years. Blurred central vision (64%) and scotoma (40%) were the most common symptoms. Multifocal PIC lesions were mostly restricted to the posterior pole (95%). The acute lesions were yellow and demonstrated hyperfluorescence (61%) or mild hyperfluorescence (36%) on fluorescein angiography, mostly (75%) <200 μm in diameter and <10 in number. Indocyanine angiography showed subclinical hypofluorescent spots in 32% of the affected eyes. Choroidal neovascularization developed in 63% of affected eyes. Papilledema (3%) and segmental retinal phlebitis (2%) were rare. Intact follow-up data of 27 patients (43 eyes) were available. Acute lesions turned into punched-out atrophic lesions within 3 months. New visible lesions developed in 5 eyes within 1 year after symptom onset. New choroidal neovascularization developed in five eyes. The mean best-corrected visual acuity significantly improved at last follow-up (P = 0.039).
Punctate inner choroidopathy in Chinese is not rare and primarily affects young myopic women. It features multifocal, small, yellow lesions that develop within a short period, principally in the posterior pole, with subsequent atrophy. Complicated choroidal neovascularization is frequent. General visual prognosis is moderately good.
- SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Inflammatory conditions that affect the posterior pole are diverse. Specifically, birdshot chorioretinopathy and the white dot syndromes present with multiple white dots in the fundus. These diseases appear to affect similar age groups but there is question as to whether or not a difference exists between the genders. This review summarizes the current studies on birdshot chorioretinopathy and the white dot syndromes as they are related to gender, exploring the differences, if any, which may exist between prevalence, clinical presentation, and treatment response for these diseases. Though the specific etiology of these diseases remains unclear, future treatments may be guided as to how these diseases affect the sexes differently.Journal of Ophthalmology 02/2014; 2014:146768. DOI:10.1155/2014/146768 · 1.94 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Purpose To investigate the autofluorescence (AF) characteristics of punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) and to evaluate the progression rate of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy lesions in PIC using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Methods Twenty-two eyes of 14 PIC cases and 21 eyes of 21 non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) cases which received retinal coagulation as a control group were enrolled in this study. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) and AF were recorded from all patients at 18 months follow-up. The RPE atrophy areas of PIC and laser scars in NPDR were analyzed using the Region Finder software of the Heidelberg Eye Explorer. This software allows direct export of AF images from the database and semi-automated detection of atrophic areas by shadow correction, vessel detection, and selection of seed points. Results At baseline, both hyperfluorescence and hypofluorescence were observed in the lesions of PIC eyes with a focal elevation of RPE and corresponding disruption of the ellipsoid region of the inner segment ellipsoid zone (EZ). In contrast, hypo-AF was detected when there was a lack of RPE. The mean progression rate of RPE atrophy in PIC and NPDR were 3.735 mm2/year (0.056-0.545) and 0.127 mm2/year (0.015-0.466), respectively. Compared with the atrophy area in the last visit, the progression rate in PIC was significantly greater than that in NPDR (Z = 5.615, P < 0.0001). Conclusions The results of AF reflect the status of PIC and the progression rate of RPE atrophy in PIC, which can be used to predict the progress of PIC noninvasively.Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy 07/2014; 11(4). DOI:10.1016/j.pdpdt.2014.07.002 · 2.52 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To study the clinical features and incidence rate of ocular complications in patients with punctate inner choroidopathy. This is a retrospective cohort study conducted in a single-center academic practice setting. Patients diagnosed with punctate inner choroidopathy at the Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University from 1984 to 2012 were identified. Demographics and clinical features including the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and structural complications were collected. Main outcome measures, including visual impairment and incidence rate of ocular complications, were analyzed. Thirty-one patients (59 eyes) were included in the study. Follow-up data were available for 24 patients (47 eyes) with a mean follow-up time of 3.4 years (range, 2 months to 8.7 years). In the affected eyes with follow-up, the incidence rate of visual impairment to 20/50 or worse was 0.06 per eye-year (EY) (95% confidence interval, 0.022/EY-0.114/EY). The incidence rate of visual loss to 20/200 or worse was 0.006/EY (95% confidence interval, 0.0001/EY-0.034/EY). Thirty-six eyes (77%) had an ultimate visual acuity of 20/40 or better. All of the 13 patients with more than ≥3 years of follow-up had a visual acuity of ≥20/40 in at least 1 eye at 3 years after presentation. Two thirds of the follow-up patients (67%) on immunomodulatory drug therapy did not have new or recurrent CNV. However, this was not a statistically significant difference. Three eyes with follow-up had recurrence of CNV for an incidence rate of 0.04/EY (95% confidence interval, 0.008/EY-0.12/EY). Two eyes developed new CNV during follow-up for an incidence rate of 0.02/EY (95% confidence interval, 0.002/EY-0.066/EY). The visual prognosis in most cases of punctate inner choroidopathy is very good. The incidence rate of new CNV and recurrent CNV was 0.02/EY and 0.04/EY, respectively.Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.) 08/2014; 34(8):1666-74. DOI:10.1097/IAE.0000000000000125 · 3.18 Impact Factor