Emergent endovascular recanalization for cervical internal carotid artery occlusion in patients presenting with acute stroke.

Department of Neurosurgery, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA.
Neurosurgery (Impact Factor: 2.53). 04/2011; 69(4):899-907; discussion 907. DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31821cfa52
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Acute proximal (cervical) internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion may cause ischemia of an entire hemisphere or no ischemia at all, depending on the presence of intracranial collaterals.
To retrospectively analyze the clinical results for emergent endovascular carotid recanalization in patients with acute proximal (cervical) ICA occlusion and to assess predictors of recanalization and clinical, neurological, and functional outcome.
Emergent endovascular revascularization was attempted in 22 patients presenting with acute stroke secondary to complete cervical ICA occlusion. Patients with pseudo-occlusion were excluded. Recanalization was assessed with the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Ischemia (TIMI) system: grade 0 (no flow) to grade 3 (normal flow).
The median age of the patients was 65 years; mean admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was 14. Recanalization (TIMI grade 2/3) occurred in 17 patients (77.3%). Ten patients (45.5%) demonstrated significant clinical improvement during hospitalization (NIHSS improved ≥4 points). Fifty percent of patients had good outcomes (modified Rankin Scale ≤2) after a median follow-up of 3 months. Patient age <70 years and successful recanalization (TIMI grade 2/3) predicted a good outcome (P ≤ .01). Presence of atrial fibrillation, admission NIHSS score ≥20, and complete ICA occlusion at all levels (cervical, petrocavernous, and intracranial) were associated with poor outcomes (P ≤ .05). Patients with complete cervical ICA occlusion but partial distal preservation of the vessel were most likely to benefit from the intervention (recanalization in 88.2%; good outcome in 64.7%).
Attempts at emergent endovascular carotid recanalization for acute stroke are encouraged, particularly in younger patients with partial distal preservation of the ICA.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endovascular stroke therapy has revolutionized the management of patients with acute ischemic stroke in the last decade and has facilitated the development of sophisticated stroke imaging techniques and a multitude of thrombectomy devices. This article reviews the scientific basis and current evidence available to support endovascular revascularization and provides brief technical details of the various methods of endovascular thrombectomy with case examples.
    Neuroimaging Clinics of North America 11/2013; 23(4):673-94. · 1.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Acute cervical carotid artery occlusion presents with a severe neurological deficit and is associated with unfavorable outcomes. In this study, the authors report their experience with patients having had acute ischemic stroke due to cervical carotid occlusion, who underwent endovascular intervention. METHOD: Sixteen acute cervical carotid occlusion patients (15 males and 1 female; mean age 67.7 years) were treated by endovascularly between January 2009 and November 2012. Clinical, procedural, and angiographic data were retrospectively evaluated. Successful intracranial recanalization was based on thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score of 2B-3. A favorable outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2 at 90 days. FINDINGS: The average score of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale before treatment was 15.9. Ten of 16 patients (63 %) were associated with intracranial tandem occlusion. Ten (63 %) cases were caused by atherosclerotic, 4 (25 %) by atrial fibrillation (AF), and 2 (13 %) by dissection. Thirteen of 16 (81 %) achieved successful cervical recanalization and 7 of 16 (44 %) patients obtained sufficient cervical and intracranial perfusion. As a result, 5 of 16 (31 %) patients demonstrated favorable outcomes. Five of seven patients (71 %) with successful cervical and intracranial recanalization presented favorable outcomes. In contrast, none of the patients without cervical or intracranial recanalization presented favorable outcomes. Three of 6 (50 %) patients initially without intracranial occlusion showed favorable outcomes, but only 2 of 10 (20 %) patients associated with intracranial occlusion had favorable outcomes. On the aspect of etiology, in atherosclerotic cases, 4 of 10 (40 %) showed favorable outcomes. However, all four AF cases deteriorated into poor outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the feasibility of endovascular intervention for acute cervical carotid artery occlusion. Although treatment for tandem occlusion and AF cases is an issue that should be resolved, intervention must be encouraged. Successful cervical and intracranial revascularization will be essential for favorable outcomes.
    Acta Neurochirurgica 04/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Stroke is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and the main reason for long-term disability. An appropriate animal model of stroke is urgently required for understanding the exact pathophysiological mechanism of stroke and testing any new therapeutic regimen. Our work aimed to establish a canine stroke model occluding the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and blocking the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA), and to assess the infarct lesions by magnetic resonance imaging. The stroke model was generated by injecting two autologous clots into each MCA, followed by 2-h ipsilateral ICA blockade (ilICAB) using a catheter in 15 healthy adult beagles. Outcome measurements included 24-h and 7-day postocclusion T2-weighted imaging (T2WI)-based infarct volume calculation. In addition, pial collateral score, canine neurobehavioral score and histopathologic results were documented. Out of 15 dogs, 12 with successful MCA occlusion (MCAO) and ilICAB survived 7 days without complications or casualties and MCA were reperfused at 7 days after occlusion. High signal intensity in the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex on T2WI was initially observed in each dog at 6 h after the procedure. The mean percentage hemispherical infarct volume corrected for edema in all dogs on T2WI at 24 h after occlusion was 12.99±1.57%, and the degree of variability was 12.08%. The infarct volumes at 24 h after occlusion correlated with pial collateral scores and canine neurobehavioral scores well. This canine stroke model with combined MCAO and ilICAB reported here were proven to be highly feasible and reproducible.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 6 May 2013; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2013.65.
    Laboratory Investigation 05/2013; · 3.96 Impact Factor