Acute proximal (cervical) internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion may cause ischemia of an entire hemisphere or no ischemia at all, depending on the presence of intracranial collaterals.
To retrospectively analyze the clinical results for emergent endovascular carotid recanalization in patients with acute proximal (cervical) ICA occlusion and to assess predictors of recanalization and clinical, neurological, and functional outcome.
Emergent endovascular revascularization was attempted in 22 patients presenting with acute stroke secondary to complete cervical ICA occlusion. Patients with pseudo-occlusion were excluded. Recanalization was assessed with the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Ischemia (TIMI) system: grade 0 (no flow) to grade 3 (normal flow).
The median age of the patients was 65 years; mean admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was 14. Recanalization (TIMI grade 2/3) occurred in 17 patients (77.3%). Ten patients (45.5%) demonstrated significant clinical improvement during hospitalization (NIHSS improved ≥4 points). Fifty percent of patients had good outcomes (modified Rankin Scale ≤2) after a median follow-up of 3 months. Patient age <70 years and successful recanalization (TIMI grade 2/3) predicted a good outcome (P ≤ .01). Presence of atrial fibrillation, admission NIHSS score ≥20, and complete ICA occlusion at all levels (cervical, petrocavernous, and intracranial) were associated with poor outcomes (P ≤ .05). Patients with complete cervical ICA occlusion but partial distal preservation of the vessel were most likely to benefit from the intervention (recanalization in 88.2%; good outcome in 64.7%).
Attempts at emergent endovascular carotid recanalization for acute stroke are encouraged, particularly in younger patients with partial distal preservation of the ICA.
"As you may know, there were a number of reports about acute occlusion at the cervical portion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) due to atherosclerosis steno-occlusive disease. Cervical ICA occlusion often has concomitant intracranial occlusion , which might be brought on by distal migration of a clot from the occlusion site and/or cerebral hypoperfusion due to large vessel occlusion. Acute VA origin occlusion must be closely similar to cervical ICA occlusion. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are few reports describing stroke due to the acute occlusion of the vertebral artery (VA) origin successfully treated by endovascularily. The authors report a case of 78-year-old man suffering from stroke owing to acute VA origin occlusion associated with contralateral hypoplastic VA leading to basilar artery (BA) thrombosis. Cerebral angiography demonstrated that the right VA was occluded at its origin, the left VA was hypoplastic, and BA was filled with thrombus. The occlusion of VA origin was initially passed through with a microcatheter and microwire. Hereafter, angioplasty was performed followed by stenting with a coronary stent. The VA origin was successfully recanalized. Next, a microcatheter was navigated intracranially through the stent and fibrinolysis was performed for BA thrombus. The patient's symptoms gradually improved postoperatively. Stroke due to acute VA origin occlusion leading to BA thrombosis was successfully treated by angioplasty and stenting followed by intracranial fibrinolysis.
"We found only 3 studies [13, 14, 15] in which IV thrombolysis was used in patients before emergency stenting of ICAD, but 2 of these studies included also patients with atherothrombotic occlusions. Only Lekoubou et al. reported detailed procedural and outcome data specifically for 3 ICAD patients treated with a protocol comparable to ours . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Compared to other etiologies of ischemic stroke, occlusive internal carotid artery dissection responds worse to intravenous (IV) thrombolysis. Intracranial tandem occlusion is a predictor of poor outcome. A direct endovascular approach has been proposed as a safe and probably superior alternative to IV thrombolysis. However, it may lead to considerable treatment delays. We used rapidly initiated IV thrombolysis-bridging and subsequent endovascular treatment in two patients with severe hemispheric ischemia due to occlusive internal carotid artery dissection with tandem occlusion and achieved good outcomes. Minimizing recanalization times likely improves patient outcome and IV thrombolysis-bridging may be a reasonable strategy to achieve this. The positive initial results obtained with endovascular approaches and IV thrombolysis-bridging in this patient group deserve further scientific exploration.
Case Reports in Neurology 01/2012; 4(1):13-9. DOI:10.1159/000335990
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