Association between HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy, and risk of acute myocardial infarction: a cohort and nested case-control study using Québec's public health insurance database.
ABSTRACT Morbidity associated with cardiovascular disease is increasing in the HIV-infected population. We aimed to study the impact of HIV and of antiretrovirals on acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
We performed a cohort and a nested case-control study using the dataset of the Régie de l'Assurance Maladie du Québec. HIV-positive patients were identified using ICD-9 diagnostic codes and matched to HIV-negative patients. Within the HIV-positive cohort, cases of AMI were identified and matched to HIV-positive patients without AMI. The coprimary outcomes were the risk of AMI associated with HIV exposure in the cohort study and that associated with exposure to antiretrovirals in the case-control study. Data were analysed using Poisson and conditional logistic regression.
About 7053 HIV-positive patients were matched to 27,681 HIV-negative patients. Incidence rates of AMI in the HIV+ cohort was 3.88 95% confidence interval (CI) (3.26 to 4.58) per 1000 patient-years, compared to 2.21 95% CI (1.93 to 2.52) per 1000 patient-years in the HIV cohort. The adjusted incidence ratio of AMI for HIV-infected patients was 2.11 95%CI (1.69 to 2.63). Among HIV+ patients, 125 AMI cases were matched with 1084 HIV+ patients. We found increased odds ratio (95% CI) of AMI associated with any exposure to abacavir 1.79 (1.16 to 2.76), P = 0.02, efavirenz 1.83 (1.21 to 2.76) P = 0.004, lopinavir 1.98 (1.24 to 3.16) P = 0.004, and ritonavir 2.29 (1.48 to 3.54) P < 0.001.
HIV+ individuals were at higher risk of AMI than the general population, and several antiretrovirals were associated with an increased risk of AMI. Results should be interpreted with caution in absence of data on smoking and HIV clinical status.
Clinical Infectious Diseases 01/2015; DOI:10.1093/cid/civ013 · 9.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: HIV-infected patients are known to be at risk for premature coronary artery disease. This emerging paradigm is a rising concern for clinicians. Due to advances in the treatment of HIV, this once fatal infection has been transformed into a chronic illness. Traditional risk factors paired with the long-term use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and chronic inflammation leads to premature atherosclerosis, particularly progression of atherosclerotic plaque. This population of patients requires early recognition of subclinical atherosclerosis, as well aggressive primary and secondary prevention strategies among the multi-disciplinary team of physicians caring for them. We sought to present a comprehensive review of the available literature related to HIV and atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk.American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40256-015-0105-8 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that HIV infection is independently associated with heart failure. Diastolic dysfunction (DD) is frequent in HIV patients, but it is unclear whether this is an effect of the HIV infection itself or of the anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Our aim was to compare diastolic function in HIV treatment-naïve, HIV-ART patients and controls. We prospectively enrolled 206 consecutive patients with HIV-1 infection and 30 controls, selected by frequency matching for age and sex. HIV patients were divided in two subgroups: ART-naïve (n = 88) and ART (n = 118). Diastolic function was assessed and graded by echocardiography, according to modern consensus criteria and using tissue Doppler analysis. Compared to controls, ART-naïve patients had lower E' velocities (E' septal: 10.2 ± 2.4 vs 11.9 ± 2.6 cm/s, p = 0.02), higher E/E' ratio (7.8 ± 1.9 vs 6.9 ± 1.6,p = 0.02) and higher prevalence of DD (19 % vs 3.3 %,p = 0.05). HIV patients under ART also had worse diastolic function compared to controls (E' septal: 10.3 ± 2.5 cm/s;p < 0.01; E/E'ratio: 8.0 ± 2.0,p < 0.01; DD prevalence: 23 %;p = 0.01), but no significant differences were found between ART-naïve and ART HIV subgroups. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, age and body mass index were the only independent predictors of reduced diastolic reserve in HIV patients. Regarding systolic function, there were no significant differences in ejection fraction or S' velocities between controls and HIV subgroups. HIV treatment-naïve patients have reduced diastolic reserve that is not worsened by ART. These data reinforce the association of diastolic dysfunction with the HIV infection itself and not with the anti-retroviral therapy.Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy 02/2015; 29(1):31-9. DOI:10.1007/s10557-015-6573-x · 2.95 Impact Factor