Structural basis for the high-affinity inhibition of mammalian membranous adenylyl cyclase by 2',3'-o-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-inosine 5'-triphosphate.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.
Molecular pharmacology (Impact Factor: 4.12). 07/2011; 80(1):87-96. DOI: 10.1124/mol.111.071894
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT 2',3'-O-(N-Methylanthraniloyl)-ITP (MANT-ITP) is the most potent inhibitor of mammalian membranous adenylyl cyclase (mAC) 5 (AC5, K(i), 1 nM) yet discovered and surpasses the potency of MANT-GTP by 55-fold (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 329:1156-1165, 2009). AC5 inhibitors may be valuable drugs for treatment of heart failure. The aim of this study was to elucidate the structural basis for the high-affinity inhibition of mAC by MANT-ITP. MANT-ITP was a considerably more potent inhibitor of the purified catalytic domains VC1 and IIC2 of mAC than MANT-GTP (K(i), 0.7 versus 18 nM). Moreover, there was considerably more efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer between Trp1020 of IIC2 and the MANT group of MANT-ITP compared with MANT-GTP, indicating optimal interaction of the MANT group of MANT-ITP with the hydrophobic pocket. The crystal structure of MANT-ITP in complex with the G(s)α- and forskolin-activated catalytic domains VC1:IIC2 compared with the existing MANT-GTP crystal structure revealed only subtle differences in binding mode. The higher affinity of MANT-ITP to mAC compared with MANT-GTP is probably due to fewer stereochemical constraints upon the nucleotide base in the purine binding pocket, allowing a stronger interaction with the hydrophobic regions of IIC2 domain, as assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy. Stronger interaction is also achieved in the phosphate-binding site. The triphosphate group of MANT-ITP exhibits better metal coordination than the triphosphate group of MANT-GTP, as confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations. Collectively, the subtle differences in ligand structure have profound effects on affinity for mAC.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Edema factor (EF) is a calmodulin (CaM)-activated adenylyl cyclase (AC) toxin from Bacillus anthracis that contributes to anthrax pathogenesis. Anthrax is an important medical problem, but treatment of Bacillus anthracis infections is still unsatisfying. Thus, selective EF inhibitors could be valuable drugs in the treatment of anthrax infection, most importantly shock. The catalytic site of EF, the EF/CaM interaction site and allosteric sites constitute potential drug targets. To this end, most efforts have been directed towards targeting the catalytic site. A major challenge in the field is to obtain compounds with high selectivity for AC toxins relative to mammalian membranous ACs (mACs). 3'-(N-methyl)anthraniloyl-2'-deoxyadenosine-5'-triphosphate is the most potent EF inhibitor known so far (Ki, 10 nM), but selectivity relative to mACs needs to be improved (currently ~5-50-fold, depending on the specific mAC isoform considered). AC toxin inhibitors can be identified in virtual screening studies based on available EF crystal structures and examined in cellular test systems or at the level of purified toxin using classic radioisotopic or non-radioactive fluorescence assays. Binding of certain MANT-nucleotides to AC toxins elicits large direct fluorescence- or fluorescence resonance energy transfer signals upon interaction with CaM, and these signals can be used to identify toxin inhibitors in competition binding studies. Collectively, potent EF inhibitors are available, but before they can be used clinically, selectivity against mACs must be improved. However, several methodological approaches, complementing each other, are now available to direct the development of potent, selective, orally applicable and clinically useful EF inhibitors.
    Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 07/2013; · 7.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Whooping cough is a very important medical problem that requires novel approaches for treatment. The disease is caused by Bordetella pertussis, with the calmodulin (CaM)-activated adenylyl cyclase (AC) toxin (also known as CyaA) being a major virulence factor. Hence, CyaA inhibitors could constitute novel therapeutics, but it has been difficult to develop potent drugs with high selectivity over mammalian membranous ACs (mACs). Recent studies have shown that bis-anthraniloyl-substituted nucleoside 5'-triphosphates are potent and selective CyaA inhibitors. In addition, the interaction of CyaA with CaM is very different from the interaction of membranous mAC1 with CaM. Accordingly, compounds that interfere with the CyaA-CaM interaction may constitute a novel class of drugs against whooping cough.
    Trends in Microbiology 05/2012; 20(7):343-51. · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) regulates several important physiological processes by converting GTP into the second-messenger cGMP. sGC has several structural and functional properties in common with adenylyl cyclases (ACs). Recently, we reported that membranous ACs and sGC are potently inhibited by 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-substituted purine and pyrimidine nucleoside 5'-triphosphates. Using a highly sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, we report that highly purified recombinant sGC of rat possesses nucleotidyl cyclase activity. As opposed to GTP, ITP, XTP and ATP, the pyrimidine nucleotides UTP and CTP were found to be sGC substrates in the presence of Mn(2+). When Mg(2+) is used, sGC generates cGMP, cAMP, cIMP, and cXMP. In conclusion, soluble "guanylyl" cyclase possesses much broader substrate specificity than previously assumed. Our data have important implications for cyclic nucleotide-mediated signal transduction.
    Biochemistry 11/2011; 51(1):194-204. · 3.38 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 29, 2014