Deficient Emotional Self-Regulation and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Family Risk Analysis
ABSTRACT A growing body of research suggests that deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR) is prevalent and morbid among patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Family studies provide a method of clarifying the co-occurrence of clinical features, but no family studies have yet addressed ADHD and DESR.
Participants were 83 probands with and without ADHD and 128 siblings. All were assessed for axis I DSM-IV conditions with structured diagnostic interviews. The authors defined DESR in adult probands and siblings using items from the Barkley Current Behavior Scale. Analyses tested hypotheses about the familial relationship between ADHD and DESR.
Siblings of ADHD probands were at elevated risk of having ADHD, irrespective of the presence or absence of DESR in the proband. The risk for DESR was elevated in siblings of ADHD plus DESR probands but not in siblings of ADHD probands. ADHD and DESR cosegregated in siblings. The risk for other psychiatric disorders was similar in siblings of the ADHD proband groups.
The pattern of inheritance of ADHD with DESR preliminarily suggests that DESR may be a familial subtype of ADHD. Our data suggest that DESR is not an expression of other axis I DSM-IV disorders or of nonfamilial environmental factors. The authors cannot exclude contribution of non-axis-I DSM-IV disorders to risk for DESR and cannot determine whether the cosegregation of ADHD in DESR within families is a result of genes or familial environmental risk factors. Further investigation of DESR and its correlates and treatment both in and outside the context of ADHD is warranted.
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ABSTRACT: To estimate the risks for psychopathology and functional impairments in adulthood among a longitudinal sample of youth with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosed in childhood. This was a case-controlled, 16-year (15-19 years) prospective follow-up study of ADHD. 140 boys with and 120 without DSM-III-R ADHD were recruited from pediatric and psychiatric settings. The main outcome measures were structured diagnostic interviews and measures of psychosocial, educational, and neuropsychological functioning. Data were collected from 1988 to 2006. At the 16-year follow-up, subjects with ADHD continued to significantly differ from controls in lifetime rates of antisocial, mood, anxiety, and addictive disorders, but with the exception of a higher interval prevalence of anxiety disorders (20% vs 8%; z = 2.32, P = .02) and smoking dependence (27% vs 11%; z = 2.30, P = .02), the incidence of individual disorders in the 6-year interval between the current and prior follow-up did not differ significantly from controls. At follow-up, the ADHD subjects compared with controls were significantly (P < .05) more impaired in psychosocial, educational, and neuropsychological functioning, differences that could not be accounted for by other active psychopathology. These long-term prospective findings provide further evidence for the high morbidity associated with ADHD across the life cycle, stressing the importance of early recognition of this disorder for prevention and early intervention strategies. These findings also indicate that, in adulthood, ADHD confers significant risks for impairment that cannot be accounted for by other psychopathology.The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 07/2012; 73(7):941-50. DOI:10.4088/JCP.11m07529 · 5.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Discovering the genetic basis of early-onset psychiatric disorders has been the aim of intensive research during the last decade. We will first selectively summarize results of genetic research in child and adolescent psychiatry by using examples from different disorders and discuss methodological issues, emerging questions and future directions. In the second part of this review, we will focus on how to link genetic causes of disorders with physiological pathways, discuss the impact of genetic findings on diagnostic systems, prevention and therapeutic interventions. Finally we will highlight some ethical aspects connected to genetic research in child and adolescent psychiatry. Advances in molecular genetic methods have led to insights into the genetic architecture of psychiatric disorders, but not yet provided definite pathways to pathophysiology. If replicated, promising findings from genetic studies might in some cases lead to personalized treatments. On the one hand, knowledge of the genetic basis of disorders may influence diagnostic categories. On the other hand, models also suggest studying the genetic architecture of psychiatric disorders across diagnoses and clinical groups.European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00787-015-0702-8 · 3.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of atomoxetine on emotional control in adults with ADHD. We performed an integrated analysis using individual patient data pooled from three Eli Lilly-sponsored studies. An integrated analysis can be viewed as a meta-analysis of individual patient-level data, rather than study-level summary data. Two populations were identified: a large sample of patients with pre-treatment baseline data (the "overall population"; n=2846); and a subset of these patients with placebo-controlled efficacy data from baseline to 10 or 12weeks after initiating treatment (the "placebo-controlled population"; n=829). At baseline, in the overall population, ∼50% of ADHD patients had BRIEF-AS (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version Self-Report) Emotional control subscores between 21 and 30, compared with ∼10% of normative subjects in the BRIEF-A manual. At endpoint, in the placebo-controlled population, atomoxetine led to a small (effect size 0.19) but significant (P=0.013) treatment effect for emotional control. The effect size was 0.32 in patients with BRIEF-AS Emotional control scores>20 at baseline. Improvements in emotional control correlated with improvements in the core ADHD symptoms and quality-of-life. As deficient emotional control is associated with impaired social, educational and occupational functioning over and above that explained by core ADHD symptoms alone, improvements in emotional control may be clinically relevant. At baseline, adults with ADHD were more likely to have impaired emotional control than normative subjects. In the adult ADHD patients, atomoxetine treatment was associated with improvements in emotional control, as well as in core ADHD symptoms and quality-of-life. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.European Psychiatry 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2014.12.002 · 3.21 Impact Factor