Effect of gender on long-term survival after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair based on results from the Medicare national database.

Department of Health Evidence and Policy, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter (Impact Factor: 2.98). 04/2011; 54(1):1-12.e6; discussion 11-2. DOI: 10.1016/j.jvs.2010.12.049
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Historically, women have higher procedurally related mortality rates than men for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. Although endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has improved these rates for men and women, effects of gender on long-term survival with different types of AAA repair, such as EVAR vs open aneurysm repair (OAR), need further investigation. To address this issue, we analyzed survival in matched cohorts who received EVAR or OAR for both elective (eAAA) and ruptured AAA (rAAA).
Using the Medicare Beneficiary Database (1995-2006), we compiled a cohort of patients who underwent OAR or EVAR for eAAA (n = 322,892) or rAAA (n = 48,865). Men and women were matched by propensity scores, accounting for baseline demographics, comorbid conditions, treating institution, and surgeon experience. Frailty models were used to compare long-term survival of the matched groups.
Perioperative mortality for eAAAs was significantly lower among EVAR vs OAR recipients for both men (1.84% vs 4.80%) and women (3.19% vs 6.37%, P < .0001). One difference, however, was that the survival benefit of EVAR was sustained for the 6 years of follow-up in women but disappeared in 2 years in men. Similarly, the survival benefit of men vs women after elective EVAR disappeared after 1.5 to 2 years. For rAAAs, 30-day mortality was significantly lower for EVAR recipients compared with OAR recipients, for both men (33.43% vs 43.70% P < .0001) and women (41.01% vs 48.28%, P = .0201). Six-year survival was significantly higher for men who received EVAR vs those who received OAR (P = .001). However, the survival benefit for women who received EVAR compared with OAR disappeared in 6 months. Survival was also substantially higher for men than women after emergent EVAR (P = .0007).
Gender disparity is evident from long-term outcomes after AAA repair. In the case for rAAA, where the long-term outcome for women was significantly worse than for men, the less invasive EVAR treatment did not appear to benefit women to the same extent that it did for men. Although the long-term outcome after open repair for elective AAA was also worse for women, EVAR benefit for women was sustained longer than for men. These associations require further study to isolate specific risk factors that would be potential targets for improving AAA management.

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    ABSTRACT: The outcome of patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) varies by country. Study of practice differences might allow the formulation of pathways to improve care. We compared data from the Hospital Episode Statistics for England and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the USA for patients admitted to hospital with rAAA from 2005 to 2010. Primary outcomes were in-hospital mortality, mortality after intervention, and decision to follow non-corrective treatment. In-hospital mortality and the rate of non-corrective treatment were analysed by binary logistic regression for each health-care system, after adjustment for age, sex, year, and Charlson comorbidity index. The study included 11,799 patients with rAAA in England and 23,838 patients with rAAA in the USA. In-hospital mortality was lower in the USA than in England (53·05% [95% CI 51·26-54·85] vs 65·90%; p<0·0001). Intervention (open or endovascular repair) was offered to a greater proportion of cases in the USA than in England (19,174 [80·43%] vs 6897 [58·45%]; p<0·0001) and endovascular repair was more common in the USA than in England (4003 [20·88%] vs 589 [8·54%]; p<0·0001). Postintervention mortality was similar in both countries (41·77% for England and 41·65% for USA). These observations persisted in age-matched and sex-matched comparisons. In both countries, reduced mortality was associated with increased use of endovascular repair, increased hospital caseload (volume) for rAAA, high hospital bed capacity, hospitals with teaching status, and admission on a weekday. In-hospital survival from rAAA, intervention rates, and uptake of endovascular repair are lower in England than in the USA. In England and the USA, the lowest mortality for rAAA was seen in teaching hospitals with larger bed capacities and doing a greater proportion of cases with endovascular repair. These common factors suggest strategies for improving outcomes for patients with rAAA. None.
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    ABSTRACT: Women have been shown to have up to a fourfold higher risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture at any given aneurysm diameter compared with men, leading to recommendations to offer repair to women at lower diameter thresholds. Although this higher risk of rupture may simply reflect greater relative aortic dilatation in women who have smaller aortas to begin with, this has never been quantified. Our objective was therefore to quantify the relationship between rupture and aneurysm diameter relative to body size and determine whether a differential association between aneurysm diameter, body size, and rupture risk exists for men and women. We performed a retrospective review of all patients in the Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) database who underwent endovascular or open AAA repair. Height and weight were used to calculate each patient's body mass index and body surface area (BSA). Next, indices of each measure of body size (height, weight, body mass index, BSA) relative to aneurysm diameter were calculated for each patient. To generate these indices, we divided aneurysm diameter (in cm) by the measure of body size; for example, aortic size index (ASI) = aneurysm diameter (cm)/BSA (m(2)). Along with other relevant clinical variables, we used these indices to construct different age-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models to determine predictors of ruptured repair vs elective repair. Models for men and women were developed separately, and different models were compared using the area under the curve. We identified 4045 patients (78% male) who underwent AAA repair (53% endovascular aortic aneurysm repairs). Women had significantly smaller diameter aneurysms, lower BSA, and higher BSA indices than men. For men, the variable that increased the odds of rupture the most was aneurysm diameter (area under the curve = 0.82). Men exhibited an increased rupture risk with increasing aneurysm diameter (<5.5 cm: odds ratio [OR], 1.0; 5.5-6.4 cm: OR, 0.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-1.7; P = .771; 6.5-7.4 cm: OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.9-1.0; P < .001; ≥7.5 cm: OR, 11.3; 95% CI, 4.9-25.8; P < .001). In contrast, the variable most predictive of rupture in women was ASI (area under the curve = 0.81), with higher odds of rupture at a higher ASI (ASI >3.5-3.9: OR, 6.4; 95% CI, 1.7-24.1; P = .006; ASI ≥4.0: OR, 9.5; 95% CI, 2.3-39.4; P = .002). For women, aneurysm diameter was not a significant predictor of rupture after adjusting for ASI. Aneurysm diameter indexed to body size is the most important determinant of rupture for women, whereas aneurysm diameter alone is most predictive of rupture for men. Women with the largest diameter aneurysms and the smallest body sizes are at the greatest risk of rupture.
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