Timing of insemination and fertility in dairy and beef cattle receiving timed artificial insemination using sex-sorted sperm.

Department of Animal Reproduction, FMVZ-USP, Prof. Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87, CEP 05508-270, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
Theriogenology (Impact Factor: 1.85). 04/2011; 76(3):427-35. DOI: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2011.02.019
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate the effects of timing of insemination and type of semen in cattle subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI). In Experiment 1, 420 cyclic Jersey heifers were bred at either 54 or 60 h after P4-device removal, using either sex-sorted (2.1 × 10(6) sperm/straw) or non-sorted sperm (20 × 10(6) sperm/straw) from three sires (2 × 2 factorial design). There was an interaction (P = 0.06) between time of AI and type of semen on pregnancy per AI (P/AI, at 30 to 42 d after TAI); it was greater when sex-sorted sperm (P < 0.01) was used at 60 h (31.4%; 32/102) than at 54 h (16.2%; 17/105). In contrast, altering the timing of AI did not affect conception results with non-sorted sperm (54 h = 50.5%; 51/101 versus 60 h = 51.8%; 58/112; P = 0.95). There was an effect of sire (P < 0.01) on P/AI, but no interaction between sire and time of AI (P = 0.88). In Experiment 2, 389 suckled Bos indicus beef cows were enrolled in the same treatment groups used in Experiment 1. Sex-sorted sperm resulted in lower P/AI (41.8%; 82/196; P = 0.05) than non-sorted sperm (51.8%; 100/193). In addition, there was a tendency for greater P/AI (P = 0.11) when TAI was performed 60 h (50.8%; 99/195) versus 54 h (42.8%; 83/194) after removing the progestin implant. In Experiment 3, 339 suckled B. indicus cows were randomly assigned to receive TAI with sex-sorted sperm at 36, 48, or 60 h after P4 device removal. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed twice daily in all cows to confirm ovulation. On average, ovulation occurred 71.8 ± 7.8 h after P4 removal, and greater P/AI was achieved when insemination was performed closer to ovulation. The P/AI was greatest (37.9%) for TAI performed between 0 and 12 h before ovulation, whereas P/AI was significantly less for TAI performed between 12.1 and 24 h (19.4%) or >24 h (5.8%) before ovulation. In conclusion, sex-sorted sperm resulted in a lesser P/AI than non-sorted sperm following TAI. However, improvements in P/AI with delayed time of AI were possible (Experiments 1 and 3), and seemed achievable when breeding at 60 h following progestin implant removal, compared to the standard 54 h normally used in TAI protocols.

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    ABSTRACT: The objective was to determine whether timed artificial insemination (TAI) 56 h after removal of a Controlled Internal Drug Release (CIDR, 1.38 g of progesterone) insert would improve AI pregnancy rate in beef heifers compared to TAI 72 h after CIDR insert removal in a 5-days CO-Synch + CIDR protocol. Angus cross beef heifers (n = 1098) at nine locations [WA (5 locations; n = 634), ID (2 locations; n = 211), VA (one location; n = 193) and WY (one location; n = 60)] were included in this study. All heifers were given a body condition score (BCS; 1-emaciated; 9-obese), and received a CIDR insert and 100 μg of gonadorelin hydrochloride (GnRH) on Day 0. The CIDR insert was removed and two doses of 25 mg of dinoprost (PGF(2α)) were given, first dose at CIDR insert removal and second dose 6 h later, on Day 5. A subset of heifers (n = 629) received an estrus detector aid at CIDR removal. After CIDR removal, heifers were observed thrice daily for estrus and estrus detector aid status until they were inseminated. Within farm, heifers were randomly allocated to two groups and were inseminated either at 56 h (n = 554) or at 72 h (n = 544) after CIDR removal. All heifers were given 100 μg of GnRH at AI. Insemination 56 h after CIDR insert removal improved AI pregnancy rate compared to insemination 72 h (66.2 vs. 55.9%; P < 0.001; 1 - β = 0.94). Locations, BCS categories (≤ 6 vs. > 6) and location by treatment and BCS by treatment interactions did not influence AI pregnancy rate (P > 0.1). The AI pregnancy rates for heifers with BCS ≤ 6 and > 6 were 61.8 and 60.1%, respectively (P > 0.1). The AI pregnancy rates among locations varied from 54.9 to 69.2% (P > 0.1). The AI pregnancy rate for heifers observed in estrus at or before AI was not different compared to heifers not observed in estrus [(65.4% (302/462) vs. 52.7% (88/167); P > 0.05)]. In conclusion, heifers inseminated 56 h after CIDR insert removal in a 5-days CO-Synch + CIDR protocol had, on average, 10.3% higher AI pregnancy rate compared to heifers inseminated 72 h after CIDR insert removal.
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of estradiol benzoate (EB) and estradiol cypionate (EC) on induction of ovulation after a synchronized LH surge and on fertility of Bos indicus females submitted to timed AI (TAI) were evaluated. In Experiment 1, ovariectomized Nelore heifers were used to evaluate the effect of EB (n = 5) and EC (n = 5) on the circulating LH profile. The LH surge timing (19.6 and 50.5 h; P = 0.001), magnitude (20.5 and 9.4 ng/mL; P = 0.005), duration (8.6 and 16.5 h; P = 0.001), and area under the LH curve (158.6 and 339.4 ng/mL; P = 0.01) differed between the EB and EC treatments, respectively. In Experiment 2 (follicular responses; n = 60) and 3 (pregnancy per AI; P/AI; n = 953) suckled Bos indicus beef cows submitted to an estradiol/progesterone-based synchronization protocol were assigned to receive one of two treatments to induce synchronized ovulation: 1 mg of EB im 24 h after progesterone (P4) device removal or 1 mg of EC im at P4 device removal. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between EB and EC treatments on follicular responses (maximum diameter of the ovulatory follicle, 13.1 vs. 13.9 mm; interval from progesterone device removal to ovulation, 70.2 vs. 68.5 h; and ovulation rate, 77.8 vs. 82.8%, respectively). In addition, P/AI was similar (P < 0.22) between the cows treated with EB (57.5%; 277/482) and EC (61.8%; 291/471). In conclusion, despite pharmacologic differences, both esters of estradiol administered either at P4 device removal (EC) or 24 h later (EB) were effective in inducing an LH surge which resulted in synchronized ovulations and similar P/AI in suckled Bos indicus beef cows submitted to TAI.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study evaluated the use of sex-sorted sperm upon estrus detection (ED) or following timed artificial insemination (TAI) in lactating dairy cows. Additionally, the effect of the presence of a corpus luteum (CL) at the beginning of the TAI protocol was verified. Cows (539 crossbred Gir × Holstein and 87 Holstein) were classified according to the presence or absence of CL by ultrasonography exam. Cows with a CL were randomly assigned into one of two groups (CL-ED/AI or CL-TAI), and cows without a CL (NoCL-TAI) received TAI. Cows from the CL-ED/AI group received 500mg of cloprostenol intramuscularly and were inseminated 12h after ED in the following five days. Cows from the TAI groups (CL or NoCL) received TAI. Cows receiving CL-ED/AI had a lower (P<0.0001) service rate (45.1%, 101/224) than TAI groups (CL-TAI=94.2%, 180/191 and NoCL-TAI=97.2%, 205/211). However, cows receiving AI upon ED (CL-ED/AI=31.7%, 32/101) presented higher (P=0.03) pregnancy per AI (P/AI) than cows bred following TAI (CL-TAI=19.4%, 35/180 and NoCL-TAI=23.9%, 49/205). Despite the lower P/AI, cows receiving TAI presented greater (P=0.07) proportion of pregnant cows at the end of the reproductive program (CL-TAI=18.3%, 35/191 and NoCL-TAI=23.2%, 49/211) than those inseminated upon ED (14.3%, 32/224). There was no effect (P=0.45) of the presence of a CL at the beginning of the synchronization protocol on P/AI. Thus, the use of TAI programs, regardless of the presence of CL in the beginning of the synchronization protocol, increases the service and pregnancy rates but reduces the P/AI when compared to the use of sex-sorted sperm upon ED.
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