Timing of insemination and fertility in dairy and beef cattle receiving timed artificial insemination using sex-sorted sperm
ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate the effects of timing of insemination and type of semen in cattle subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI). In Experiment 1, 420 cyclic Jersey heifers were bred at either 54 or 60 h after P4-device removal, using either sex-sorted (2.1 × 10(6) sperm/straw) or non-sorted sperm (20 × 10(6) sperm/straw) from three sires (2 × 2 factorial design). There was an interaction (P = 0.06) between time of AI and type of semen on pregnancy per AI (P/AI, at 30 to 42 d after TAI); it was greater when sex-sorted sperm (P < 0.01) was used at 60 h (31.4%; 32/102) than at 54 h (16.2%; 17/105). In contrast, altering the timing of AI did not affect conception results with non-sorted sperm (54 h = 50.5%; 51/101 versus 60 h = 51.8%; 58/112; P = 0.95). There was an effect of sire (P < 0.01) on P/AI, but no interaction between sire and time of AI (P = 0.88). In Experiment 2, 389 suckled Bos indicus beef cows were enrolled in the same treatment groups used in Experiment 1. Sex-sorted sperm resulted in lower P/AI (41.8%; 82/196; P = 0.05) than non-sorted sperm (51.8%; 100/193). In addition, there was a tendency for greater P/AI (P = 0.11) when TAI was performed 60 h (50.8%; 99/195) versus 54 h (42.8%; 83/194) after removing the progestin implant. In Experiment 3, 339 suckled B. indicus cows were randomly assigned to receive TAI with sex-sorted sperm at 36, 48, or 60 h after P4 device removal. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed twice daily in all cows to confirm ovulation. On average, ovulation occurred 71.8 ± 7.8 h after P4 removal, and greater P/AI was achieved when insemination was performed closer to ovulation. The P/AI was greatest (37.9%) for TAI performed between 0 and 12 h before ovulation, whereas P/AI was significantly less for TAI performed between 12.1 and 24 h (19.4%) or >24 h (5.8%) before ovulation. In conclusion, sex-sorted sperm resulted in a lesser P/AI than non-sorted sperm following TAI. However, improvements in P/AI with delayed time of AI were possible (Experiments 1 and 3), and seemed achievable when breeding at 60 h following progestin implant removal, compared to the standard 54 h normally used in TAI protocols.
- SourceAvailable from: Guilherme De Paula Nogueira[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The effects of estradiol benzoate (EB) and estradiol cypionate (EC) on induction of ovulation after a synchronized LH surge and on fertility of Bos indicus females submitted to timed AI (TAI) were evaluated. In Experiment 1, ovariectomized Nelore heifers were used to evaluate the effect of EB (n = 5) and EC (n = 5) on the circulating LH profile. The LH surge timing (19.6 and 50.5 h; P = 0.001), magnitude (20.5 and 9.4 ng/mL; P = 0.005), duration (8.6 and 16.5 h; P = 0.001), and area under the LH curve (158.6 and 339.4 ng/mL; P = 0.01) differed between the EB and EC treatments, respectively. In Experiment 2 (follicular responses; n = 60) and 3 (pregnancy per AI; P/AI; n = 953) suckled Bos indicus beef cows submitted to an estradiol/progesterone-based synchronization protocol were assigned to receive one of two treatments to induce synchronized ovulation: 1 mg of EB im 24 h after progesterone (P4) device removal or 1 mg of EC im at P4 device removal. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between EB and EC treatments on follicular responses (maximum diameter of the ovulatory follicle, 13.1 vs. 13.9 mm; interval from progesterone device removal to ovulation, 70.2 vs. 68.5 h; and ovulation rate, 77.8 vs. 82.8%, respectively). In addition, P/AI was similar (P < 0.22) between the cows treated with EB (57.5%; 277/482) and EC (61.8%; 291/471). In conclusion, despite pharmacologic differences, both esters of estradiol administered either at P4 device removal (EC) or 24 h later (EB) were effective in inducing an LH surge which resulted in synchronized ovulations and similar P/AI in suckled Bos indicus beef cows submitted to TAI.Theriogenology 04/2012; 78(3):510-6. DOI:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2012.02.031 · 1.85 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Two experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of different insemination times (12 and 24h or 18 and 30h) and different types of semen (sex-sorted or non-sorted sperm) on embryo production in Nelore (Bos indicus) and Holstein (Bos taurus) superstimulated donors. In the first experiment, hormonal superstimulation of ovarian follicular development in Nelore donors (n=71) was performed in randomly allocated animals to one of the three treatment groups, and they were inseminated at 12 and 24h after an ovulatory stimulus with pLH treatment was applied, either with sex-sorted (4.2×10(6) sperm/insemination; S12/24; n=17) or non-sorted sperm (20×10(6) sperm/insemination; NS12/24; n=18), or they were inseminated at 18 and 30h using sex-sorted sperm (4.2×10(6) sperm/insemination; S18/30; n=19). A greater number of transferable embryos were found when sex-sorted sperm was used to inseminate the animals at 18 and 30h (4.5±3.0) compared to insemination at 12 and 24h (2.4±1.8; P<0.001). However, a greater embryo production (6.8±2.6) was obtained with non-sorted sperm. In the second experiment, the same insemination times and semen types were used in lactating high-production Holstein cows (n=12). A crossover design was employed in this trial. A lesser embryo production (P=0.007) was found in Holstein donors that were inseminated using sex-sorted sperm at 12 and 24h (4.6±3.0) compared to non-sorted sperm (8.7±2.8). However, intermediate results were obtained when the inseminations with sex-sorted sperm were performed at 18 and 30h (6.4±3.1). These results supported the current hypothesis that it is possible to improve embryo production using sex-sorted sperm in B. indicus and B. taurus superstimulated donors when the inseminations are performed near the same time as time-synchronized ovulations. However, the embryo production for timed artificial insemination (TAI) with sex-sorted sperm was still less than the production with non-sorted sperm.Animal reproduction science 08/2011; 127(3-4):148-53. DOI:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2011.08.003 · 1.58 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Three experiments were designed to evaluate methods to optimize the use of sex-sorted sperm in timed AI (TAI) programs for suckled beef cows. In all 3 experiments, suckled Bos indicus cows were synchronized using an intravaginal progesterone (P4) device during 8 d and a 2.0-mg injection of intramuscular estradiol benzoate (EB) at device insertion. The females received PG and eCG (300 IU) at P4 device removal and 1.0 mg of EB 24 h later. The cows were inseminated 60 to 64 h after P4 device withdrawal. All cows had their ovaries scanned by transrectal ultrasound at TAI to indentify and to measure the largest follicle (LF) present. In Exp. 1, a total of 853 cows had their LF classified as <9 mm or ≥9 mm at the time of TAI; these cows were then randomly assigned to 4 groups according to their LF diameter (<9 mm or ≥9 mm) and the type of sperm used (sex-sorted or non-sex-sorted). There was an interaction (P = 0.02) between the type of sperm and LF diameter beginning at TAI[non-sex-sorted ≥9 mm = 58.9%a (126/214); non-sex-sorted <9 mm = 49.5%b (106/214);sex-sorted ≥9 mm = 56.8%ab (134/236); and sex-sorted <9 mm = 31.2%c (59/189), a≠b≠c = P < 0.05]. In Exp. 2, suckled cows (n = 491) were classified immediately before TAI as having displayed estrus or not (estrus or no estrus) between P4 device removal and TAI. These cows were randomly assigned to 4 groups according to the occurrence of estrus and the type of sperm (sex-sorted or non-sex-sorted). There were effects of the occurrence of estrus (P = 0.0003) and the type of sperm (P = 0.05) on pregnancy per AI [P/AI; no estrus, non-sex-sorted = 43.6% (27/62); estrus, non-sex-sorted = 58.5%; (107/183); no estrus, sex-sorted = 33.9% (21/62), and estrus, sex-sorted = 50.0% (92/184)]; however, no interaction between the occurrence of estrus and type of sperm was observed (P = 0.87). In Exp. 3, a total of 200 suckled cows presenting LF ≥9 mm at TAI were randomly assigned to receive sex-sorted sperm deposited into the uterine body (n = 100) or into the uterine horn ipsilateral to the recorded LF (n = 100). No effect of deeper AI on P/AI was found (P = 0.57). Therefore, the LF diameter at TAI and the occurrence of estrus can be used as selection criteria to identify cows with greater odds of pregnancy to receive sex-sorted sperm in TAI programs. In addition, performing TAI with sex-sorted sperm deeper into the uterus did not alter the pregnancy results.Journal of Animal Science 12/2011; 90(6):1816-23. DOI:10.2527/jas.2011-4523 · 1.92 Impact Factor