Sensing of viral nucleic acids by RIG-I: from translocation to translation.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Ludwig-Maximilian University Munich, Munich, Germany.
European journal of cell biology (Impact Factor: 3.31). 04/2011; 91(1):78-85. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejcb.2011.01.015
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The innate immune system is a first layer of defense against infection by pathogens. It responds to pathogens by activating host defense mechanisms via interferon and inflammatory cytokine expression. Pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are sensed by specific pattern recognition receptors. Among those, the ATP dependent helicase related RIG-I like receptors RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2 sense the presence of viral RNA in the cytoplasm of host cells. While the precise PAMPs and functions of MDA5 or LGP2 are still unclear, RIG-I senses predominantly viral RNA containing a 5'-triphosphate along with dsRNA regions. Here we review our current knowledge of how these PAMPs are sensed and integrated by RIG-I, and how RIG-I's innate immune function can be used in translational medical approaches.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is characterized by a microenvironment suppressing immune responses. RIG-I-like helicases (RLH) are immunoreceptors for viral RNA that induce an antiviral response program via the production of type I interferons (IFN) and apoptosis in susceptible cells. We recently identified RLH as therapeutic targets of pancreatic cancer for counteracting immunosuppressive mechanisms and apoptosis induction. Here, we investigated immunogenic consequences of RLH-induced tumor cell death. Treatment of murine pancreatic cancer cell lines with RLH ligands induced production of type I IFN and proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, tumor cells died via intrinsic apoptosis and displayed features of immunogenic cell death, such as release of HMGB1 and translocation of calreticulin to the outer cell membrane. RLH-activated tumor cells led to activation of dendritic cells (DCs), which was mediated by tumor-derived type I IFN, whereas TLR, RAGE or inflammasome signaling was dispensable. Importantly, CD8α(+) DCs effectively engulfed apoptotic tumor material and cross-presented tumor-associated antigen to naive CD8(+) T cells. In comparison, tumor cell death mediated by oxaliplatin, staurosporine or mechanical disruption failed to induce DC activation and antigen presentation. Tumor cells treated with sublethal doses of RLH ligands upregulated Fas and MHC-I expression and were effectively sensitized towards Fas-mediated apoptosis and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated lysis. Vaccination of mice with RLH-activated tumor cells induced protective antitumor immunity in vivo. In addition, MDA5-based immunotherapy led to effective tumor control of established pancreatic tumors. In summary, RLH ligands induce a highly immunogenic form of tumor cell death linking innate and adaptive immunity.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 11 July 2014; doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.96.
    Cell Death and Differentiation 07/2014; · 8.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mammalian genome has evolved to encode a battery of mechanisms, to mitigate a progression in the life cycle of an invasive viral pathogen. Although apparently disadvantaged by their dependence on the host biosynthetic processes, an immensely faster rate of evolution provides viruses with an edge in this conflict. In this review, I have discussed the potential anti-virus activity of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), a well characterized effector of the cellular homeostatic response to an overloading of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein-folding capacity. IRE1, an ER-membrane-resident ribonuclease (RNase), upon activation catalyses regulated cleavage of select protein-coding and non-coding host RNAs, using an RNase domain which is homologous to that of the known anti-viral effector RNaseL. The latter operates as part of the Oligoadenylate synthetase OAS/RNaseL system of anti-viral defense mechanism. Protein-coding RNA substrates are differentially treated by the IRE1 RNase to either augment, through cytoplasmic splicing of an intron in the Xbp1 transcript, or suppress gene expression. This referred suppression of gene expression is mediated through degradative cleavage of a select cohort of cellular RNA transcripts, initiating the regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD) pathway. The review first discusses the anti-viral mechanism of the OAS/RNaseL system and evasion tactics employed by different viruses. This is followed by a review of the RIDD pathway and its potential effect on the stability of viral RNAs. I conclude with a comparison of the enzymatic activity of the two RNases followed by deliberations on the physiological consequences of their activation.
    Frontiers in microbiology. 01/2014; 5:292.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this work we have addressed the effect of synthetic, non-infectious, RNA transcripts, mimicking structural domains of the non-coding regions (NCRs) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome on the infection of mice with Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Groups of 5 mice were inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 200 μg of synthetic RNA resembling the 5́-terminal S region, the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) or the 3'-NCR of the FMDV genome. RNA inoculation was performed 24 hours before (-24h), 24 hours after (+24h) or simultaneously to the challenge with a lethal dose of RVFV. Administration of the IRES RNA afforded higher survival rates than administration of S or 3'NCR transcripts either at -24h or +24h after challenge. In contrast, when RNA inoculation and viral challenge were performed simultaneously, all mice survived in both IRES- and 3'NCR-inoculated groups, with an 80% survival in mice receiving the S RNA. Among survivors, a complete correlation between significant anti-RVFV circulating antibody titers and resistance to a second lethal challenge with the virus was observed, supporting a limited viral replication in the RNA-inoculated animals upon the first challenge. All three RNA transcripts were able to induce the production of systemic antiviral and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These data show that triggering of intracellular pathogen sensing pathways constitutes a promising approach towards development of novel RVF preventive or therapeutic strategies.
    Antiviral Research 06/2014; · 3.43 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 5, 2014