Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β expression in clear cell adenocarcinomas of the bladder and urethra: diagnostic utility and implications for histogenesis.
ABSTRACT The histogenesis of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the bladder/urethra is uncertain. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β is a homeodomain protein that has been reported to be frequently overexpressed in ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma in comparison with rare or no expression in other types of epithelial ovarian tumors. We assessed the expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β in a series of 18 clear cell adenocarcinomas of the bladder and urethra and compared it with that of invasive high-grade transitional/urothelial carcinoma (n = 35); adenocarcinomas of the bladder, urethra, and paraurethral glands (n = 21); as well as nephrogenic adenomas of the bladder (n = 8). Staining intensity and extent were evaluated using a 4-tiered grading system (0-3). A case was considered positive for hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β if 10% or more of tumor cells showed at least weak nuclear staining or if any moderate or strong nuclear staining was observed. All 18 clear cell adenocarcinomas exhibited nuclear staining in at least 50% of tumor cells (16 strong, 1 moderate, and 1 weak with focal strong nuclear staining) in comparison with positive nuclear staining (moderate) in 1 of 21 bladder adenocarcinoma, 1 of 35 invasive high-grade transitional/urothelial carcinoma (weak to moderate staining), and 2 of 8 nephrogenic adenomas (1 weak and 1 moderate to strong staining). We concluded that hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β is a useful marker in differentiating clear cell adenocarcinomas of the bladder/urethra from invasive high-grade transitional/urothelial carcinoma and other types of bladder adenocarcinomas and to a lesser extent from nephrogenic adenomas. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β is of no diagnostic utility in discriminating primary bladder/urethral clear cell adenocarcinomas from metastatic clear cell adenocarcinomas of the female genital tract to the bladder/urethra. From a histogenesis standpoint, although the expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β in both gynecologic and urologic tract clear cell adenocarcinomas may point to a Müllerian derivation/differentiation, this immunohistochemical evidence is insufficient to completely exclude an urothelial association.
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ABSTRACT: The hallmarks of ovarian cancer encompass the development of resistance, disease recurrence and poor prognosis. Ovarian cancer cells express gene signatures which pose significant challenges for cancer drug development, therapeutics, prevention and management. Despite enhancements in contemporary tumor debulking surgery, tentative combination regimens and abdominal radiation which can achieve beneficial response rates, the majority of ovarian cancer patients not only experience adverse effects, but also eventually relapse. Therefore, additional therapeutic possibilities need to be explored to minimize adverse events and prolong progression-free and overall response rates in ovarian cancer patients. Currently, a revival in cancer drug discovery is devoted to identifying diagnostic and prognostic ovarian cancer biomarkers. However, the sensitivity and reliability of such biomarkers may be complicated by mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes, diverse genetic risk factors, unidentified initiation and progression elements, molecular tumor heterogeneity and disease staging. There is thus a dire need to expand existing ovarian cancer therapies with broad-spectrum and individualized molecular targeted approaches. The aim of this review is to profile recent developments in our understanding of the interrelationships among selected ovarian tumor biomarkers, heterogeneous expression signatures and related molecular signal transduction pathways, and their translation into more efficacious targeted treatment rationales.Journal of Oncology 02/2012; 2012:737981. DOI:10.1155/2012/737981
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ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta (HNF1β) has recently emerged as a relatively sensitive and specific marker for ovarian clear cell carcinoma. The purpose of this study is to assess the diagnostic utility of this marker for endometrial clear cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 75 endometrial tissues using a goat polyclonal antibody raised against a peptide mapping at the C-terminus of human HNF1β protein. The 75 cases included 15 clear cell carcinomas, 20 endometrioid carcinomas, 15 endometrial serous carcinomas/uterine papillary serous carcinomas, 20 cases of normal endometrium, 2 cases of clear cell metaplasia, and 3 cases of Arias Stella reaction. Staining interpretations were based on a semiquantitative scoring system, a 0 to 12+ continuous numerical scale that was derived by multiplying the extent of staining (0 to 4+ scale) by the intensity of staining (0 to 3+ scale) for each case. HNF1β expression was found to be present in a wide spectrum of tissues. Twenty-seven (54%) of the 50 carcinomas displayed at least focal nuclear HNF1β expression, including 11 (73%) of 15, 9 (60%) of 15, and 7 (35%) of 20 clear cell, serous, and endometrioid carcinomas, respectively. The average nuclear staining scores for clear cell carcinomas, endometrioid carcinomas, and serous carcinomas were 5.2, 1.4, and 4.1, respectively. Clear cell carcinomas and endometrioid carcinomas displayed statistically significant differences regarding their nuclear staining scores (P=0.0027), but clear cell carcinomas and endometrial serous carcinomas did not (P=0.45). The calculated sensitivity of any nuclear HNF1β expression in classifying a carcinoma as being of the clear cell histotype was 73%, whereas the specificity was 54%. Nineteen of 20 normal endometrium samples displayed at least focal nuclear expression of HNF1β, and this expression was often diffuse. The 5 cases of benign histologic mimics of clear cell carcinomas (Arias Stella reaction and clear cell metaplasia) displayed some degree of HNF1β immunoreactivity, with an average nuclear staining score of 7.3. We conclude that although HNF1β is frequently expressed in clear cell carcinomas, it should be used with caution as a diagnostic marker because of its lack of specificity. It neither distinguishes endometrial serous carcinomas from clear cell carcinomas nor clear cell carcinomas from its benign mimics. The greatest diagnostic utility of HNF1β expression may be in a supportive evidentiary role favoring clear cell carcinoma when the principal differential diagnostic consideration is endometrioid carcinoma.Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology: AIMM / official publication of the Society for Applied Immunohistochemistry 04/2012; DOI:10.1097/PAI.0b013e31824973d1 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transcription factors (TFs) play central role in normal cellular physiology and their aberrant expression is linked to different diseases. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factors (HNFs) are TFs that have been recognized to play multiple roles in liver physiology. Emerging research has highlighted their function in the sustenance of solid tumors, indicating that HNFs could serve as possible therapeutic targets in cancer. Although, there have been many attempts to develop HNF targeted drugs, the myriad downstream targets associated with these transcription factors, some of which are critical for normal cell homeostasis, led to the realization that HNFs are not easily druggable. Therefore, identifying and optimizing drugs that can selectively inactivate HNFs is a challenge to the pharmaceutical industry. To achieve this, a more in-depth understanding is required of the HNFs binding partners, the protein interaction networks it regulates and the resulting phenotype. This calls for network analysis of the pathways regulated by HNFs and how chemical perturbations can selectively activate or suppress their functions. Network biology is an emerging field of research that is finding applications in cancer drug discovery. Specifically, network pharmacology is cementing its position in cancer research and has various applications such as biomarker identification, in determining synergistic drug pairs and in drug repurposing. Developing a network understanding of HNFs, the target it hits and responses thereof can enhance our ability to design drugs against these TFs. This article reviews how network pharmacology can help in the identification of druggable avenues in TFs and also allow the selection of drugs and their synergistic pairs against HNFs for cancer therapy.Current Drug Discovery Technologies 12/2012; DOI:10.2174/1570163811310020007