Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β expression in clear cell adenocarcinomas of the bladder and urethra: diagnostic utility and implications for histogenesis.
ABSTRACT The histogenesis of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the bladder/urethra is uncertain. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β is a homeodomain protein that has been reported to be frequently overexpressed in ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma in comparison with rare or no expression in other types of epithelial ovarian tumors. We assessed the expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β in a series of 18 clear cell adenocarcinomas of the bladder and urethra and compared it with that of invasive high-grade transitional/urothelial carcinoma (n = 35); adenocarcinomas of the bladder, urethra, and paraurethral glands (n = 21); as well as nephrogenic adenomas of the bladder (n = 8). Staining intensity and extent were evaluated using a 4-tiered grading system (0-3). A case was considered positive for hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β if 10% or more of tumor cells showed at least weak nuclear staining or if any moderate or strong nuclear staining was observed. All 18 clear cell adenocarcinomas exhibited nuclear staining in at least 50% of tumor cells (16 strong, 1 moderate, and 1 weak with focal strong nuclear staining) in comparison with positive nuclear staining (moderate) in 1 of 21 bladder adenocarcinoma, 1 of 35 invasive high-grade transitional/urothelial carcinoma (weak to moderate staining), and 2 of 8 nephrogenic adenomas (1 weak and 1 moderate to strong staining). We concluded that hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β is a useful marker in differentiating clear cell adenocarcinomas of the bladder/urethra from invasive high-grade transitional/urothelial carcinoma and other types of bladder adenocarcinomas and to a lesser extent from nephrogenic adenomas. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β is of no diagnostic utility in discriminating primary bladder/urethral clear cell adenocarcinomas from metastatic clear cell adenocarcinomas of the female genital tract to the bladder/urethra. From a histogenesis standpoint, although the expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β in both gynecologic and urologic tract clear cell adenocarcinomas may point to a Müllerian derivation/differentiation, this immunohistochemical evidence is insufficient to completely exclude an urothelial association.
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ABSTRACT: Carcinoma of the renal pelvis is an uncommon renal neoplasm. Clear cell adenocarcinoma in the urinary tract is rare and has a histomorphology resembling that of the female genital tract. We herein present a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis, which is the first example in a male patient to our knowledge. A 54-year-old man presented with right flank pain. The tumor was associated with renal stones and hydronephrosis and invaded into the peripelvic fat tissue with regional lymph node metastasis. The patient died of metastatic disease six months postoperatively. Histologically, the tumor showed complex papillary architecture lined with clear and hobnail cells. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis may pose a diagnostic challenge on histological grounds, particularly in the distinction from renal cell carcinoma. The immunohistochemical stains could help confirm the diagnosis. Due to its rarity, an effective treatment regimen remains to be determined.12/2013; 2013:494912. DOI:10.1155/2013/494912
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ABSTRACT: AimsIn contrast to clear cell carcinomas developing in other organs (e.g. ovary and uterus), gastric adenocarcinomas with clear cell features are not well characterized. Methods We evaluated a series of 762 gastric adenocarcinomas for the presence of clear cell changes, investigated the nature with several histochemical and immunohistochemical markers, and association with various clinicopathological and prognostic significance ResultsClear cell changes were observed in 8.5% (n = 65) of gastric cancers. Cases with clear cell changes (GCC) were significantly associated with older age, intestinal type, and body/fundic location. GCC was associated with greater depth of invasion, lymph node metastases, lymphovascular invasion. An increasing proportion of clear cell changes also indicated a worse prognosis, and was identified as an independent poor prognostic marker using the Cox regression proportional hazard model (hazard ratio, 0.462; p = 0.003). Among the 62 GCCs, 35 cases (55.6%) displayed cytoplasmic accumulation of glycogen, while 21 (33.3%) showed mucin. GCCs showing glycogen accumulation expressed AFP, glypican-3, and CD10 more commonly than those with mucin, which commonly expressed Muc5AC and Muc6. Conclusionclear cell gastric adenocarcinoma is a unique subgroup of gastric cancer which, although heterogenous, has a poor prognosis.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Histopathology 07/2014; 65(1). DOI:10.1111/his.12372 · 3.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The occurrence of clear cell tumors in the bladder is not uncommon. Clear cell dysplasia is well-described and characterized by focal replacement of transitional mucosa by cells with abundant clear cytoplasm, nuclear enlargement, and a granular chromatin pattern. Clear cells can also be seen in clear cell adenocarcinoma, which is rare, comprising 0.5% to 2.0% of the reported bladder carcinomas. Other clear cell tumors found in the bladder to be considered in the differential diagnosis are tumors of Mullerian origin and metastatic lesions, such as renal cell carcinoma, clear cell sarcoma, and malignant melanoma. Clear cell urothelial carcinoma is exceedingly rare, with only nine clinical cases described in the literature.Journal of Medical Case Reports 08/2014; 8(1):275. DOI:10.1186/1752-1947-8-275