Electrovectorcardiographic diagnosis of left septal fascicular block: anatomic and clinical considerations.
ABSTRACT Several publications considering anatomical, histological, pathological, electrocardiographic, vectorcardiographic, and electrophysiologic studies have shown that the left bundle branch splits into three fascicles or in a "fan-like interconnected network" in the vast majority of human hearts. The left His system is trifascicular with a left anterior, a left posterior, and a left septal fascicle (LSF). Consequently, the classic term "hemiblock," to describe the block of one of the fascicles, established several decades ago by the Rosembaum's school, should be updated. Electrovectorcardiographic changes resulting from conduction abnormalities of the left anterior and left posterior fascicles are commonly diagnosed, mainly by their changes in the frontal plane. However, the existence of conduction defects of the LSF remains controversial. The ECG/VCG hallmark of LSF block is prominent anterior QRS forces (PAF) on the horizontal plane. This ECG/VCG phenomena should be distinguished from other conditions that also produce anterior QRS shift in the HP as: normal variants, right ventricular enlargement, misplaced precordial leads, lateral myocardial infarction, right bundle branch block, Wolff-Parkinson-White, obstructive and nonobstructive forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopahty, diastolic left ventricular enlargement, endomiocardial fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and dextroposition. The two highly frequent etiologies of LSFB are ischemia (coronary artery disease (CAD) with critical proximal obstruction of the left anterior descending coronary artery) and, in Latin America, Chagas' cardiomyopathy. The aims of this review are to revise the evidence of the existence of a trifascicular left Hissian system and to help in the ECG/VCG recognition of the LSFB.