New insights into ergot alkaloid biosynthesis in Claviceps purpurea: an agroclavine synthase EasG catalyses, via a non-enzymatic adduct with reduced glutathione, the conversion of chanoclavine-I aldehyde to agroclavine. Org Biomol Chem 9:4328-4335
ABSTRACT Ergot alkaloids are indole derivatives with diverse structures and biological activities. They are produced by a wide range of fungi with Claviceps purpurea as the most important producer for medical use. Chanoclavine-I aldehyde is proposed as a branch point via festuclavine or pyroclavine to clavine-type alkaloids in Trichocomaceae and via agroclavine to ergoamides and ergopeptines in Clavicipitaceae. Here we report the conversion of chanoclavine-I aldehyde to agroclavine by EasG from Claviceps purpurea, a homologue of the festuclavine synthase FgaFS in Aspergillus fumigatus, in the presence of reduced glutathione and NADPH. EasG comprises 290 amino acids with a molecular mass of about 31.9 kDa. The soluble monomeric His(6)-EasG was purified after overproduction in E. coli by affinity chromatography and used for enzyme assays. The structure of agroclavine was unequivocally elucidated by NMR and MS analyses.
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ABSTRACT: A previous study showed that together with the festuclavine synthase FgaFS, the old yellow enzyme FgaOx3 from Aspergillus fumigatus catalyzed the conversion of chanoclavine-I aldehyde to festuclavine in the biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids. In the absence of FgaFS, a mixture containing two compounds with a ratio of 7:3 was detected in the enzyme assay of FgaOx3. NMR experiments including (DQF)-COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY identified their structures as E/Z isomers of N-methyl-N-[(5R,10R)-10-(2-oxo-propyl)-2,4,5,10-tetrahydrobenzo[cd]indol-5-yl]formamide and proved the migration of the formyl group at C-8 in chanoclavine I-aldehyde to N-6 in the identified products.Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry 10/2011; 49(10):678-81. DOI:10.1002/mrc.2796 · 1.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ergot alkaloids produced by the fungus Claviceps parasitizing on cereals, include three major groups: clavine alkaloids, d-lysergic acid and its derivatives and ergopeptines. These alkaloids are important substances for the pharmatech industry, where they are used for production of anti-migraine drugs, uterotonics, prolactin inhibitors, anti-Parkinson agents, etc. Production of ergot alkaloids is based either on traditional field cultivation of ergot-infected rye or on submerged cultures of the fungus in industrial fermentation plants. In 2010, the total production of these alkaloids in the world was about 20,000kg, of which field cultivation contributed about 50%. This review covers the recent advances in understanding of the genetics and regulation of biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids, focusing on possible applications of the new knowledge to improve the production yield.Biotechnology advances 01/2012; 31(1). DOI:10.1016/j.biotechadv.2012.01.005 · 9.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This review highlights developments in mycotoxin analysis and sampling over a period between mid-2010 and mid- 2011. It covers the major mycotoxins: aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. Analytical methods for mycotoxins continue to be developed and published. Despite much interest in immunochemical methods and in the rapid development of LC-MS methodology, more conventional methods, sometimes linked to novel clean-up protocols, have also been the subject of research publications over the above period. Occurrence of mycotoxins falls outside the main focus of this review; however, where relevant to analytical method development, this has been mentioned.World Mycotoxin Journal 02/2012; 5(1):3-30. DOI:10.3920/WMJ2011.1338 · 2.16 Impact Factor