Effect of soft drinks on the physical and chemical features of nickel-titanium-based orthodontic wires.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of three popular soft drinks on the Young's modulus, hardness, surface topography and chemical composition of widely used nickel-titanium-based orthodontic wires.
Thirty-two specimens (20 mm in length) were cut from the straight portion of pre-formed 0.019 × 0.025 inch Nitinol Heat-Activated archwires and randomly divided into four groups of eight specimens each: Group A1 (Coca Cola(®) regular); Group A2 (Santal(®) orange juice); Group A3 (Gatorade(®)); Group B (distilled, deionized water; dH(2)O). Each specimen was immersed in 10 ml of one of the soft drinks or dH(2)O, control, for 60 min, at 37°C. At the end of the soaking time, the Young's modulus and hardness were determined using a nanoindenter. Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was used to characterize the effects on the topography and chemical composition of the wires.
No statistically significant differences were found between the groups either in the Young's modulus or in hardness after the selected soaking protocol. Besides some surface colour changes, the topography and the chemical composition of the wires were not affected by the immersion in any of the chosen soft drinks.
These in-vitro results suggest that the consumption of soft drinks cannot be acknowledged as one possible reason for the degradation of the physical and chemical properties of heat activated nickel titanium orthodontic wires in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment.
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ABSTRACT: The materials used by orthodontists have changed rapidly in recent years and will continue to do so in the future. As esthetic composite archwires are introduced, metallic archwires will likely be replaced for most orthodontic applications in the same way that metals have been replaced by composites in the aerospace industry. Archwires are reviewed in the order of their development, with emphasis on specific properties and characteristics, such as strength, stiffness, range, formability, and weldability. Because an ideal material has not yet been found, archwires should be selected within the context of their intended use during treatment.The Angle Orthodontist 02/1997; 67(3):197-207. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to characterize intraorally fractured nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) archwires, determine the type of fracture, assess changes in the alloy's hardness and structure, and propose a mechanism of failure. Eleven Ni-Ti SE 200 and 19 copper-Ni-Ti (both, Ormco, Glendora, Calif) intraorally fractured archwires were collected. The location of fracture (anterior or posterior), wire type, cross section, and period of service before fracture were recorded. The retrieved wires and brand-, type-, and size-matched specimens of unused wires were subjected to scanning electron microscopy to assess the fracture type and morphological variation of fracture site of retrieved specimens, and to Vickers hardness (HV200) testing to investigate the hardness of as-received and in-vivo fractured specimens. Fracture site distribution was statistically analyzed with the chi-square test (alpha = 0.05), whereas the results of the hardness testing were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA with state (control vs in-vivo fractured) and composition (Ni-Ti SE vs copper-Ni-Ti) serving as discriminating variables and the Student-Newman-Keuls test at the 95% confidence level. Results: The fracture site distribution showed a preferential location at the midspan between the premolar and the molar, suggesting that masticatory forces and complex loading during engagement of the wire to the bracket slot and potential intraoral aging might account for fracture incidence. All retrieved wires had the distinct features of brittle fracture without plastic deformation or crack propagation, whereas no increase in hardness was observed for the retrieved specimens. Most fractures sites were in the posterior region of the arch, probably because of the high-magnitude masticatory forces. Brittle fracture without plastic deformation was observed in most Ni-Ti wires regardless of archwire composition. There was no increase in the hardness of the intraorally exposed specimens regardless of wire type. This contradicts previous in-vitro studies and rules out hydrogen embrittlement as the cause of fracture.American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 08/2007; 132(1):84-9. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this editorial is to systematically analyze the variety and potency of various aging variables affecting the morphology, structure, and mechanical properties of polymeric and metallic orthodontic materials. The effects of aging on the longevity of the bond strength and mechanotherapy were analyzed: aging-induced plasticization of resin adhesives might lead to bond failure at forces of magnitude lower than those sustained at the initiation of treatment. Standard in vitro methodologies cannot show this effect, and thus laboratory bond strength protocols require modification to become clinically meaningful. Also, the force transferred from an activated archwire to a preadjusted bracket slot, as well as friction during free sliding, seems to be affected by the intraorally induced alteration of materials. Although the effect of intraoral environmental conditions on the superelastic properties of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) archwires and coil springs requires further research to establish the true spectrum of effects, it has been suggested that intraoral temperature variations might transiently affect their properties and that the fracture resistance of used Ni-Ti wires is reduced. Clinical implications are discussed for (1) in vivo-aged elastomeric ligatures and chains, which can be postulated to express much higher creep than their in vitro-aged counterparts; (2) the largely unknown effect of aging on the spring component of self-ligated brackets and the associated effect on ligation force; and (3) the intraorally induced alterations in the structural conformation of Invisalign appliances (Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif). The objective of future research efforts in the field of orthodontic materials should include the development of clinically relevant methodologies. A clear definition of limitations of laboratory experimental configurations might be instrumental in confining the clinical impact of research findings to their actual extent.American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 05/2005; 127(4):403-12. · 1.46 Impact Factor